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    Module for production developed by Advanced Algal Technologies Limited

    The passage of time has led to the development of numerous new methods for the generation of biofuel.

    The company has researched patented and innovative means of the production of biofuel. It is currently in the ultimate stages of harvesting algae in a manner that is commercially viable for the production of biofuel. The approach of the company is not only unique but causes no harm to the environment.

    Company URL:

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  • 07/17/13--03:57: Acid for TMB in Elisa Kits
  • What is the acid in the stop solution for TMB in ELISA kits? Can anyone tell me?

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    An overview of University of Chicago, its admission procedure, scholarships, latest news, programs, campus culture and enrollment. This post will be the first in a series on the top biotechnology colleges and universities in the US. I will include some general overview of the school and its location, but focus on biotechnology and related fields for the sections on academics.

    Overview and Rank
    The University of Chicago is a private university located in Chicago, Illinois which was founded in 1890. The campus is situated 7 miles south of downtown Chicago, in the Hyde Park neighborhood. It is currently the 4th highest ranked university in the United States according to the US News university ranking system. U. Chicago is also rated 24th in the US for scientific impact in Biomedical and Health sciences according to the CWTS Leiden ranking system.

    [Image: 127339453_86f5e63ad7_z.jpg]
    Undergraduate admission to U. Chicago is based on more than GPA and test scores. The university has no specific minimum GPA or SAT/ACT and considers each applicant's entire background, including extra curricular activities and letters of recommendation. The average GPA for accepted students in 2012 was an A- (3.7 on a 4.0 scale), the average SAT score was around 2000, and the average ACT score around 32. U. Chicago accepts the Common Application, in addition to a specific U. Chicago supplement, which can be found on the Common Application’s website (

    Enrollment (Fall 2012):
    Undergraduate: 5,612
    Graduate: 9192
    Total: 15,544
    Male: 52%
    Female: 48%
    Accepted: 13% (8.8% for 2013. This number has been dropping each year due to the elite nature of the school.)

    Tuition: $45,324
    Student Life Fee: $1,062
    Room & Board: $13,653
    Books/Personal Expenses: $3,821
    Total: $63,860

    Financial Aid:
    Students can find out if they are eligible for financial aid by filling out a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). The parent contribution to financial costs is determined through analysis of their net worth while considering factors such as family size and additional children enrolled in a college or university. The student’s contribution consists of any summer work in addition to work during the academic year, as well as student’s assets and student loans. Once all of these factors are considered, U. Chicago may award an institutional grant to cover the remaining cost of attendance. Of full time undergraduates, 46.7% receive an average of $36,600 in financial aid.

    Academics and Bioengineering Related Study
    At U.Chicago, the undergraduate school, called “The College”, offers 50 majors and 28 minors. Because this is a consistently ranked top school, students can expect a rigorous curriculum throughout all of the majors. Of primary interest to those seeking a future in biotechnology are the Biological Chemistry and Biological Sciences majors. Biological Chemistry focuses on the study of the chemistry and physics of cellular and molecular structures and processes, and includes courses in biotechnology. This major will prepare students for work in fields related to biochemical and biophysical sciences. Biological Sciences is closer to a traditional Biology program with focus on organisms and their environment. This major also allows the student to select a specialized program of study including:

    • Cellular and Molecular Biology
    • Ecology and Evolution
    • Endocrinology
    • Genetics
    • Immunology
    • Microbiology
    • Neuroscience

    There are two undergraduate classes specifically for introduction to biotechnology. One class is part of the “Core Biology” series, which is designed to give an introduction to biotechnology for non-biological sciences majors. This class (or another that falls under Core Biology) is a prerequisite for the Biotechnology for the 21st Century class. This class starts with an overview but then branches into specific aspects of the biotechnology field, including microbial, medical and agricultural biotechnology. More advanced biotechnology related topics should then be pursued in major specific classes.

    These majors can be further augmented with minors in fields related to biotechnology that may help better prepare the student or give them important cross disciplinary knowledge. Suggested minors are Mathematics, Computer Science, and Statistics. In addition to the classes required for each major or minor, undergraduate students must complete a core curriculum known as The Core. The Core is a set of classes covering a wide range of fields that introduce students to a common set of ideas and skills useful across all majors. The Core takes about ⅓ of a student’s time at U. Chicago and covers the Humanities, Civilization Studies, Arts, Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Social Sciences, Language (which the student can place out of) and Physical Education (which the student can pass with a fitness test, instead).

    There are a wide variety of undergraduate research opportunities in the Biological Sciences Division including the Beckman Scholars Program in Molecular Sciences. This program includes guided literature readings, seminars and data and journal clubs. There is also a summer research program for undergraduates (REU) which lasts for 10 weeks and pays a stipend of $4,000. REU programs allow students to spend a summer intensively working on a research project with a faculty member at the university .

    U. Chicago also has 4 large Graduate and 6 professional schools. Of particular interest to Biotechnology minded students is the Biological Sciences Division with areas of research spanning many biological fields. The 20 PhD programs are divided between 4 different “clusters” pertaining to their areas of study. These 4 clusters are:
    • Biomedical Sciences - research centered on medical fields such as immunology
    • Darwinian Sciences - research covering evolution and integrative biology
    • Molecular Biosciences - Biochemical and Molecular biology related study
    • Neuroscience - Neurobiology and computational neuroscience

    Admission to the Biological Sciences Division requires a Bachelor’s degree in a related field, in addition to having proficiency in English and having taken the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). Subject GRE’s are not required, except for Medical Physics. To complete a PhD for the Biological Sciences Division, every student must satisfy the curriculum, preliminary examination, qualifying examination and dissertation requirements of their particular program in addition to 6 quarters of residency. In addition, every PhD student must teach twice for credit and can take an optional teaching training course. A course in Scientific Ethics must also be completed in the Spring quarter of the graduate student’s first year.

    There is also the Institute for Molecular Engineering, which is a cross disciplinary institute built upon the University’s strengths in molecular, computational, and clinical sciences. The institute is fairly new, having been established in 2012 in partnership with Argonne National Laboratory, and aims to lead the way in a new field which combines synthetic molecular building blocks with biological components. The institute is actively and rapidly growing, seeking 24 new faculty members. The institute will also be moving to a brand new building to be completed in 2015, which will have state of the art laboratory space and equipment.

    In addition to over 400 officially recognized clubs and organizations, U. Chicago has 14 fraternities and 7 sororities. Beyond campus social life, there is much to do in the way of extracurricular and social activity at the University of Chicago due to its location in Chicago, which is the third most populous city in the US. There are innumerable attractions to visit, such as Millenium Park, Chicago Theatre, The Art Institute of Chicago, and many more. Like any major city, there are many concert venues, theatre performances, and a wide range of dining and nightlife locations. Chicago has several modes of transportation around the city, including its large public rapid transit system, known as the ‘L’, and the Metra, a commuter rail service. Chicago is also home to the O’Hare International Airport, Chicago Midway International Airport and the Union Station Amtrak line, both useful for traveling in and out of the city itself. Making use of all the transportation options available is well advised due to the population density, traffic, and parking scarcity in Chicago, as is typical with many major cities.

    Of course there are also many attractions in Hyde Park itself, where the campus is located. Hyde Park has several shopping and dining districts, museums such as the Hyde Park Art Center, parks such as Jackson Park (which contains wooded areas and a Japanese garden), and is bordered to the east by Lake Michigan.

    Image Source: by by eli_albert - Creative Commons-licensed content.

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    EntericBio is the first product in the world that can detect faecal pathogens within 3 hours. The test has been launched in market trials in the home markets of Ireland and UK in October 2011. To date each and every trial site is converting over to this new method of testing. Traditional culture based testing that takes 48 hours is now been replaced at a significant pace.

    Customers have described the test as “being the new gold standard for faecal pathogen testing”.

    EntericBio realtime® Stool Test

    • The faecal sample is re-suspended in EntericBio realtime SPS solution. This solution has been designed to enable PCR processing direct from the stool sample.
    • A robot is used to automatically transfer the liberated DNA, from each re-suspended faecal sample, directly into each well of the assay.
    • Following amplification on a Roche 480 Light Cycler, positive samples are identified automatically using the EntericBio realtime software.

    These tests have been designed by Medical Scientists - for Medical Scientists.

    The goal was to make the test as simple as possible, 'error proofing' at every stage.

    These assays work directly from the stool sample and do not require nucleic acid extraction/purification. The entire mastermix required to perform each test is lyophilised into individual reaction wells. Each reaction well contains an internal amplification control to monitor for PCR inhibition. A positive amplification control is provided with each kit.

    The EntericBio realtime® Gastro panel I assay is a molecular diagnostic test for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli/lari and Stx1/Stx2 from human stool samples.

    The EntericBio realtime® C. difficile assay is a molecular diagnostic test for the detection of the C. difficile toxin B gene (tcdB) directly from human stool samples.

    The assays work directly from the stool sample and do not require nucleic acid extraction/purification.

    Process Summary; a swab is lightly coated with the stool sample, the swab is re-suspended in a tube of EntericBio Stool Preparation Solution (SPS) then heated at 97⁰C for 30 min. The heat treated samples are placed on the epmotion 5070 instrument (Eppendorf AG) for fully automated transfer of the processed samples directly to the lyophilised reaction wells using the EntericBio Gastro Panel I programme. The wells are capped and transferred to the LC480 instrument (Roche) for automated amplification, detection and analysis with the EntericBio programme. A typical run of 48 samples has a turnaround time to result of less than 3 hours with typically 30 mins hands-on time.

    The Stool tests require

    NO DNA extraction,
    NO reagent preparation
    NO manual pipetting
    NO enrichment
    Same day results
    ...... truly revolutionary.


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  • 07/21/13--20:04: Hello.
  • I am a derricknk here, i am a new member here. I have been, searching such type of nice
    forum for the time being. I have a thrust, for learning new tricks. I hope all the member
    belong to this forum, will be very helpful. I like this forum very much.

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    An overview of Johns Hopkins University, its admission procedure, scholarships, latest news, programs, campus culture and enrollment.

    Overview and Rank
    Johns Hopkins University is a private university founded in 1876 located in and around Baltimore, MD. It is currently the 13th highest ranked university in the United States according to the US News university ranking system. Johns Hopkins is also rated 17th in the US for scientific impact in Biomedical and Health sciences according to the CWTS Leiden ranking system.

    [Image: 799px-Lower_Quad_at_JHU.jpg]
    Wyman Quad, home to the Whiting School of Engineering at Johns Hopkins University

    In addition to academic record, prospective students applying to Johns Hopkins will also be judged based on extracurricular achievements, leadership and community contribution, essays, and letters of recommendation. Application requires a complete Universal College Application or the Common Application in addition to the Johns Hopkins Supplement for whichever application is used. Applicants must also send two teacher evaluations. The SAT Reasoning Test or ACT with Writing Test must also be submitted. The middle 50th percentile for admitted students in 2013 had an SAT composite score of 2110-2300 and an ACT of 32-35.

    Enrollment (Fall 2013):
    Enrolled Undergraduate Students: 5149
    Enrolled Graduate Students: 2,029
    Male: 52%
    Female: 48%
    Accepted: 18.4%

    Tuition: $45,470
    Room & Board: $13,832
    Books/Personal Expenses: $2200
    Total: $61,502

    Financial Aid:
    Students can find out if they are eligible for financial aid by filling out a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) in addition to using the online ‘need calculator’ for Johns Hopkins at In addition to the FAFSA, the CSS Financial aid profile must be completed ( if the student is a US citizen or the International Financial Aid Application if the student is international ( The parent contribution to financial costs is determined through analysis of their net worth while considering factors such as family size and additional children enrolled in a college or university. In addition to need based loans from the university, Johns Hopkins also provide merit based scholarships. This included the Hodson Trust Scholarship which provides up to $28,500 per year and is given to fewer than 20 freshman each year. Of particular interest to students interested in Biotechnology, there is the Charles R. Westgate Scholarship in Engineering which covers tuition entirely and includes a stipend towards living expenses for four years of undergraduate study for any student in engineering. This engineering requirement spans all engineering majors, so the Bioengineering majors are included.

    Academics and Biotechnology Related Study
    Known for being a top research university with especially good Biological and Biomedical related programs, Johns Hopkins has a wide array of specialized majors for those interested in biotechnology.

    First, there is Biomaterials Engineering which is a special program within the materials science and engineering major. This program is an interdisciplinary major which combines materials science, engineering, biology, and medicine. Students will learn how to engineer materials used in tissue engineering, drug and gene delivery, and medical devices and implants.

    Another specialized major is Biomechanics which is offered within the mechanical engineering and engineering mechanics majors. Students can learn about biomechanics at a macroscopic level such as how soft and hard tissues affect computer-integrated surgical systems such as medical robotics. Students can also learn about subcellular biomechanics such as conformational transitions of biomolecules.

    Biomedical Engineering is another specialized major which must be set as the prospective student’s first choice major when applying to Johns Hopkins. This program involves learning various engineering techniques and how to apply them to living systems.

    Biophysics is a specialized major that involves learning physics and how it is applied to biological problems, particularly at the subcellular range. Biophysics includes areas such as protein folding, molecular structure and energetics, and membrane structure and function. In addition to requiring biology, chemistry, math and physics, Biophysics majors can also take classes for an introduction to computer programming. Biophysics majors must also complete two semesters of original research that is carried out in a nationally funded laboratory of the student’s choice.

    Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering is another specialized major centered around learning about the chemical, biological and physical transformations starting at a molecular scale. Students will learn about chemical and biomolecular engineering of transport, kinetics and thermodynamics with electives in materials science, nanotechnology, and bioengineering. Students in this program can specialize in one of two concentrations: interfaces and nanotechnology and molecular and cellular bioengineering.

    In addition to these majors, a student can also minor in various fields which would complement their studies and better prepare them for further work in biotechnology. These minors include Computer Science, Mathematics, and Applied Mathematics and Statistics.

    Johns Hopkins University also has a large Graduate program in the department of Biomedical Engineering. A Master of Science in Engineering is available which can be completed in two years. A two-semester course, Physiological Foundations in Biomedical Engineering, is required for all students in this program. Otherwise, the rest of the courses can be chosen by the student to suit their own interests. A PhD program in Biomedical Engineering is also offered at Johns Hopkins. This program has several different areas that the student can specialize in:

    • Cell and Tissue Engineering
    • Computational Biology (further broken into):
      - Bioinformatics
      - Computational Modeling
    • Medical Imaging
    • Molecular Neural Cardiovascular Systems (further broken into):
      - Molecular and Cell Systems
      - Cardiovascular Systems
    • Neuroscience and Neuroengineering

    The PhD programs in Biomedical Engineering place particular emphasis on a solid foundation in life sciences. Because of this, PhD students must take in-depth training in life sciences in one of two ways. The first option is to enroll in the basic sciences curriculum in the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, designed to cover a broad range of topics including molecules and cells, human anatomy, immunology, physiology and neuroscience. This curriculum usually takes the student’s entire first year. The second option involves taking numerous electives in life sciences which are tailored to the specific program’s research area. This option is generally taken by students who enter a Biomedical Engineering program already with a strong background in life sciences.

    In addition to over 350 officially recognized clubs and organizations, Johns Hopkins has 13 fraternities and 8 sororities. Beyond campus social life, there is much to do in the way of extracurricular and social activity at Johns Hopkins due to its location in Baltimore, which is the largest city in Maryland and 24th largest city in the US. In addition to its main campus being located in Baltimore, Johns Hopkins is also near Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. Beyond the usual dining and entertainment locations which can be found in any major city, Baltimore has an area, the Inner Harbor, which contains many different attractions and is a popular tourist destination. The inner harbor contains many museums such as the Baltimore Museum of Industry in addition to other interesting locations such as the National Aquarium in Baltimore and Oriole Park at Camden Yards, home to the Major League Baseball Team the Baltimore Orioles. Public transportation options exist in Baltimore but are fairly poor and disjointed. There is a bus system, MARC train, Light Rail and Metro subway which all operate independently but can be used to travel around the city. Fortunately Baltimore also has comprehensive bicycle routes throughout the city which are still expanding and many of them pass through the downtown area. In addition to local transport, Baltimore is home to an Amtrak station as well as the Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI).

    Image Source: by Ottawa80 - Creative Commons-licensed content

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    Does anyone know if RPMI-1640 with/out Glutamine have any known light sensitivities. Does it need to be stored in the dark?

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    An overview of the University of California, San Diego, its admission procedure, scholarships, latest news, programs, campus culture and enrollment.

    Overview and Rank
    University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in La Jolla, California. It is currently the 38th highest ranked university in the United States according to the US News university ranking system. UC San Diego is also rated 14th in the US for scientific impact in all sciences according to the CWTS Leiden ranking system.

    [Image: 800px-UCSD-Warren_Pano.jpg]
    A panoramic picture of Warren College Mall, containing the Geisel Library and the Jacobs School of Engineering.

    Prospective students for undergraduate admission to UC San Diego can apply online using the University of California Admission Application ( In addition to the application, UC San Diego requires ACT with Writing scores or SAT Reasoning Test with critical reading, math and writing with all scores from the same sitting. Students interested in biotechnology should also consider taking 2 SAT subject tests in areas related to the field they wish to pursue, as UC San Diego strongly suggests these subject tests for students pursuing degrees in engineering, biological and physical sciences. UC San Diego also requires a minimum 3.0 GPA for california residents and 3.4 for out of state students. The average SAT score of admitted students is 1700 and an ACT score of 24.

    For graduate admissions, UC San Diego requires at least a 3.0 GPA and a Bachelor’s degree. Prospective students must also submit 3 letters of recommendation, a statement of purpose and GRE general test scores. Some departments, such as Bioengineering, do not require the GRE subject test, but others such as Biomedical Sciences recommends a subject test in Biology, Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology or Chemistry. The exact requirements for each department can be found at: .

    Enrollment (Fall 2012):
    Enrolled Undergraduate Students: 22,676
    Enrolled Graduate Students: 4,588
    Enrolled Medicine/Pharmacy Students: 1,788
    Male: 48%
    Female: 52%
    Accepted: 35.5%

    Tuition(California Resident*): $13,302
    Room & Board: $11,978
    Books/Personal Expenses: $3,756
    Total: $30,525

    *Additional Cost for Non CA Residents: $22,878

    Financial Aid:
    Students can find out if they are eligible for financial aid by filling out a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) . The parent contribution to financial costs is determined through analysis of their net worth while considering factors such as family size and additional children enrolled in a college or university. The student’s contribution consists of any summer work in addition to work during the academic year, as well as student’s assets and student loans. In addition to need based aid from state, federal, and university sources, students can apply for merit based and ‘restricted’ scholarships. Merit based scholarships are based only on academic achievement while restricted scholarships are special scholarships which also consider need, background, and field of interest (including some with a preference for students in physical and life sciences). A full list of the restricted scholarships can be found at: . For undergraduate students who wish to pursue additional research while at UC San Diego, the University provides several research scholarships which will fund these activities. To be eligible for these research scholarships, students must be enrolled during the entire summer and the research must be above and beyond the scope of normal coursework. These scholarships award $3,500 and there are several specifically given for research in biological, life, physical and health sciences and engineering. A full list of these scholarships can be found at:

    Academics and Biotechnology Related Study
    UC San Diego is a relatively large public university with a sizeable undergraduate population, so there are many potential majors from which a person interested in biotechnology can choose from, including a B.S. in Biotechnology itself. The following is a list of majors which may be of interest to biotechnology minded students:

    Bioengineering (BE)
    Bioengineering (B.S.)
    Bioengineering (Biotechnology) (B.S.)
    Bioengineering (Bioinformatics) (B.S.)
    Bioengineering: BioSystems (B.S.)

    Biological Sciences
    Biochemistry and Cell Biology (B.S.)
    Biology with Specialization in Bioinformatics (B.S.)
    Ecology, Behavior and Evolution (B.S.)
    General Biology (B.S.)
    Human Biology (B.S.)
    Microbiology (B.S.)
    Molecular Biology (B.S.)
    Physiology and Neuroscience (B.S.)

    Chemistry and Biochemistry
    Biochemistry/Chemistry (B.S.)
    Bioinformatics (B.S.)
    Chemical Education (B.S.)
    Chemical Physics (B.S.)
    Chemistry (B.S.)
    Environmental Chemistry (B.S.)
    Molecular Synthesis (B.S.)
    Pharmacological Chemistry (B.S.)

    Computer Science and Engineering (CSE)
    Computer Science with Specialization in Bioinformatics (B.S)

    Mathematics - Scientific Computation (B.S.)

    Physics (B.S.)
    Physics - Biophysics (B.S.)
    Physics with Specialization in Computational Physics (B.S.)
    Physics with Specialization in Materials Physics (B.S.)

    In addition, students may wish to pursue a minor which complements their study in one of these fields, such as Physics, Applied Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science, and General Biology. Undergraduate students may also wish to participate in extra scientific research beyond what is found in their normal curriculum. For many majors, there are special classes that can be taken as electives called “Special Studies Courses” which allow students to conduct research independently or in small groups. There is also an additional program, the Academic Enrichment Program (AEP), whose purpose is to expose undergraduates to research and prepare them for graduate programs. Students conduct research guided by faculty mentors and may have the opportunity to present their work at undergraduate conferences.

    UC San Diego also has 69 graduate programs across 5 graduate schools. Of particular interest to those interested in biotechnology are:
    - Bioengineering
    - Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
    - Biological Sciences
    - Biology (Joint Doctoral Program SDSU/UCSD)
    - Biomedical Sciences
    - Chemical Engineering
    - Chemistry and Biochemistry
    - Nanoengineering

    The Bioengineering degree offers one of the widest selections of specializations including:
    - Biodynamics
    - Bionanotechnology and Biophotonics
    - Biofabrication and BioMEMS
    - Biomechanics
    - Biomedical Imaging
    - Biosensors, Instrumentation and Microscopy
    - Blood substitutes
    - Cardiac Mechanics
    - Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
    - Cartilage Tissue Engineering
    - Cell and Tissue Engineering
    - Computational Biology
    - Genomics and Genetic Circuits
    - Integrative Network Biology
    - Microcirculation;
    - Microhemodynamics
    - Molecular Bioengineering and Biomechanics
    - Muscle Physiology and Biomechanics
    - Network Genomics
    - Neural Engineering and Ophthalmology
    - Vascular Bioengineering

    In addition to about a year of core courses, a qualifying examination and dissertation defense, there is also a requirement of 4 quarters of teaching in order to receive the PhD.

    UC San Diego is located in La Jolla, California, in a warm climate near the Pacific Ocean. Due to its location, nightlife and over 500 student organizations, UC San Diego is often ranked one of the happiest universities in the US. The campus is spacious with many green areas including eucalyptus groves and even a sea port. There is a large student building on campus, the Price Center, which houses multiple restaurants, bookstore, and a movie theater. The campus also has the popular Che Cafe which is known for its underground music scene and even many performances by well known bands. In addition to over 17,000 parking spaces, UC San Diego also has a free shuttle system for students and faculty with routes around campus, nearby residential areas, and shopping centers. The university also subsidizes local public transportation as well as having a free bike rental program. San Diego is also looking to expand its trolley service to the campus, making it easier for students to travel to the nearby city which is the 8th largest in the US and contains many additional attractions.

    Image Source: by Znode - Creative Commons-licensed content

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    Hey, I came across this idea that sounded cool but I never realised it was necessary in the medical world.

    Basically, this small, passive mixer is used to mix and keep medicines in suspension form. The details are here:

    Really, I was curious as to how necessary this is. I mean, once you mix together IV fluids, don't they just stay mixed. Maybe this isn't a great idea for this device?

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    We used cre-loxp technology to knockout one gene in mouse brain. We have confirmed the targeted gene was knockout at first two weeks after this gene deletion at protein and mRNA level. But I can not confirm it after 3 and 9 month of gene deletion.

    Cre induced recombination is permanent and it cannot reverse later. But now how to explain our experiment? What are the possible reasons?

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    Hyderabad, India and Houston, TX, USA, August 1 2013: Ocimum Biosolutions announces its entry into the Core Facility Management Software space with the launch of its new product Facility Tracker™ today. This is a cloud-based, ready to use software for academic, R&D, CRO, hospitals, manufacturing, and QA&QC core facilities across various industry types. Its competitive advantages include options to interface with electronic lab note and to scale up to Ocimum’s powerful and popular laboratory information management system (LIMS), Biotracker™.

    Mr. Subash Lingareddy, CFO and President of Ocimum Biosolutions, said, “Facility Tracker™ is our solution to manage core facilities and their customers , identified from our 12+ years of experience in running and working with core facilities”.
    Mr. Sridhar Reddy, Senior Vice-President, Bio-IT operations said, “With Facility Tracker™ we have an unmatched system especially made for core facilities, and it integrates seamlessly with Biotracker™ ”.

    About Facility Tracker™
    Facility Tracker™ is an innovative and intuitive core facility management software developed by Ocimum Biosolutions. Facility Tracker™ automates and streamlines processes with increased communication and connectivity within and outside a core facility, while saving time and costs. Available as an on-premise or SaaS model, Facility Tracker™ works best in all popular browsers, desktops, laptops tablets and other smart devices supported. It offers a gamut of features including user, instrument, inventory, sample, customer, and service request management; resource scheduling; results and reports tracking; notifications; invoicing; and reporting. In addition, Facility Tracker™ is compliant with standards such as GLP, GXP, and 21 CFR Part 11. These advantages come from Biotracker™ technology, using which Facility Tracker™ was built.
    For more information, visit

    About Ocimum Biosolutions
    Ocimum Biosolutions is a leading integrated global genomics company with solutions spanning Data Analytics and Big Data; Laboratory, Sample & Data Management; and Integrated Solutions. Ocimum provides comprehensive genomic reference databases; data analysis; life science LIMS solutions and Core Facility Management solutions. Ocimum products and solutions are trusted by majority of top 25 hospitals and biotech, CRO, agri-biotech, &pharma companies worldwide. Ocimum has received several awards including “Bioinformatics Company of the Year” awards for 2010 and 2011, from BioSpectrum, “Fastest Growing Life Sciences Company in India”, " Customer Value Enhancement Award for Laboratory Information Management in India” by Frost and Sullivan in 2012, " Red Herring Asia 100, “IT Innovation Award” by NASSCOM and has been named in the Deloitte list of Fastest Growing companies in Asia, four years in a row.
    For more information, visit

    .pdf  Facility tracker.pdf (Size: 864.1 KB / Downloads: 0)

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    An overview of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, its admission procedure, scholarships, latest news, programs, campus culture and enrollment.

    Overview and Rank
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private university known for its emphasis on physical sciences and engineering, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It is currently the 6th highest ranked university in the United States according to the US News university ranking system. MIT is also rated 1st in the US for scientific impact in all sciences according to the CWTS Leiden ranking system.
    [Image: 800px-MIT_Main_Campus_Aerial.jpg]
    View of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's main campus from a helicopter flying over the Charles River.

    Prospective MIT undergraduates can apply using MIT’s online MyMIT system found here: (MIT does not use the common application). Part of the application requires biographical information, a list of activities and coursework you have taken in addition to several short response essays so the admissions office can get to know you as an applicant. In addition, students will need to submit 3 letters of recommendation. One letter must come from one of the student’s past math or sciences teacher, another letter from a past humanities, arts, language or social sciences teacher, and the third must come from a guidance counselor. In addition, applying students must submit SAT or ACT plus Writing scores along with scores from the Math SAT II subject test and Science SAT II subject test (in Physics, Chemistry or Biology). The middle 50% score range for these tests are as follows:

    SAT Reasoning Test - Math [740, 800]
    SAT Reasoning Test - Critical Reading [680, 780]
    SAT Reasoning Test - Writing [690, 790]
    ACT Math [34, 36]
    ACT English [32, 35]
    ACT Composite [32, 35]
    SAT Subject Test - Math [760, 800]
    SAT Subject Test - Science [740, 800]

    For prospective graduate students, specific admissions requirements vary by department but many (including Biology as well as Computational and Systems Biology) require transcripts from an undergraduate institution, 3 letters of recommendation and general GRE scores (subject tests not required but can be submitted).

    Enrollment (Fall 2012):
    Enrolled Undergraduate Students: 4,503
    Enrolled Graduate Students: 6,686
    Male: 55%
    Female: 45%
    Accepted: 8.9%

    Tuition: $42,050
    Room & Board: $12,188
    Books/Personal Expenses: $2,772
    Total*: $57,010

    *83% of MIT undergraduates receive financial aid and have an average cost of $24,410

    Financial Aid
    MIT only offers need based aid and gives no merit based aid. However, MIT tries to make every accepted student able to afford their studies at MIT, so 83%+ of students are given financial aid. In addition to a FAFSA, every student should also complete and send in a CSS Financial Aid Profile. Considerations for aid rely on family income, assets, and the number of other children in college. The awarded financial aid packages are a combination of grants, loans, scholarships, and student jobs. MIT provides a financial aid calculator which can help prospective students approximate the amount of aid they may receive, located on their website: .

    Academics and Biotechnology Related Study
    MIT has 5 schools which cover 30 programs and departments including undergraduate and graduate studies. Of particular interest to those seeking degrees in biotechnology, MIT has a Department of Biological Engineering which offers undergraduate, master, and PhD degrees. This department fuses molecular life sciences with engineering, with emphasis on advances in bioscience and applied biotechnology. This department is particularly prestigious and one third of the faculty hold membership in one of the major US academies including 6 in the National Academy of Engineering, 5 in the National Academy of Science, 7 in the Institute of Medicine, and 6 in the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. The department is also ranked #1 for number of citations per publication among bioengineering departments.

    Completion of the undergraduate program yields a Bachelor of Science in Biological Engineering. The program prepares students for careers in industries ranging from pharmaceutical and biotechnology to materials synthesis, microelectronics, biomedical devices, and ecology. This program centers on biological and biochemical sciences integrated with engineering practices. The first two years of study center around biological, chemical and mathematical foundations with more advanced topics covered in electives. These electives are often taught in conjunction with other departments and include:
    - Biomechanics & Biophysics
    - Biological Instrumentation
    - Synthetic Biology & Macromolecular Design
    - Computational & Systems Biology
    - Human Pathophysiology
    - Neurobiology
    - Pharmacology & Toxicology
    - Cell & Tissue Engineering
    - Microbial & Ecological Systems

    If a student wishes to major in a different field, such as Biology, Physics, or Mathematics yet still wishes to prepare for work in a biotechnology field, they could also complete one of the two minors offered by the Department of Biological Engineering: Minor Program in Biomedical Engineering and Minor Program in Toxicology and Environmental Health.

    The Department of Biomedical Engineering also offers a Master of Engineering in Biological Engineering (a 4 year undergraduate and 1 year graduate program) and several PhD tracks. PhD students in this department can follow the Bioengineering or Applied Biosciences tracks. In addition, this department is a leader in the Computational and Systems Biology PhD, which is a collaboration between Biological Engineering, Biology, and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. These PhD tracks have three major research areas with a number of sub-fields in each:

    Bioengineering Research
    - Molecular, Cell & Tissue Biomechanics
    - Cell & Tissue Engineering
    - Biomolecular Engineering
    - Biomaterials
    - Biological Imaging & Functional Measurement
    - Biological & Physiological Transport Phenomena
    - Biophysics
    Applied Biosciences Research
    - Genetic Toxicology
    - Metabolism of Drugs & Toxins
    - Microbial Pathogenesis
    - Carcinogenesis
    - Molecular Epidemiology
    - Molecular Pharmacology & Toxicology
    Bioengineering & Applied Biosciences Research
    - Genomics, Proteomics and Glycomics
    - Discovery & Delivery of Molecular Therapeutics
    - Macromolecular Biochemistry & Biophysics
    - Computational Modeling of Biological Systems
    - Nanoscale Engineering of Biological Systems

    Students at all levels in the Department of Biological Engineering have access to research opportunities across many laboratories and research centers including the Center for Biomedical Engineering, the Center for Environmental Health Sciences, the Center for Emergent Behavior of Integrative Cellular Systems, the Center for Gynepathology Research, the Synthetic Biology Center, and the Division of Comparative Medicine. PhD students also have access to several training programs that provide more cross disciplinary and rigorous educations than normal track programs.

    Culture and Campus
    MIT is located on 168 acres in Cambridge, Massachusetts (just north of Boston) which is also home to Harvard University. While dormitory housing is guaranteed for 4 years for all undergraduate students, there are 36 fraternities, sororities and independent living groups. MIT has over 380 student activity groups including an annual entrepreneurship competition, which is popular due to a very prominent entrepreneurial culture at MIT. Transportation around Cambridge can be achieved through the extensive public buses, subway, commuter rail and ferries of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority. Walking is also a popular mode of transportation in Cambridge, as it is ranked first in the US for percentage of people who walk to work. There is some intercity transportation to the nearby city of Boston, the largest in Massachusetts and location of the closest major airport, Logan International. In addition to the normal dining, music, theater and other cultural attractions of a major city, Boston also has a number of historical sites due to it being one of the oldest cities in the United States. Boston and Cambridge both have a large number of historical houses, some of which date to the 1700s.

    Image Source: - by DrKenneth - Creative Commons-licensed content

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    am from sokoine university of agriculture (SUA) its in Tanzania one of the two universities in Tanzania having biotechnology program, in sua its biotechnology and laboratory sciences.
    atlst students from different colleges in Africa we should get exposed and get to know each other!

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    The history of Pandora Charms dates back in 1982, the goldsmith P. Enevoldsen and his wife in modest surroundings on Nørrebrogade in Copenhagen, Denmark built the jeweler's shop, which one day become Pandora. They often travelled to Thailand search jewelry for importing, and as demand for their products increased, the shop began to focus on the wholesale business.

    In 1987, after several highly successful years as wholesalers, the company discontinued its retail activities and moved to larger premises. After a few more years as wholesalers, Winnie and Per were inspired to open their own factory in Thailand. This was done as a means of ensuring, among other things, control of their own designs. Lone Frandsen was hired as a designer, and Pandora Australia company began to focus on creating a unique jewelry brand. In 1996, Lisbeth Larsen, goldsmith and designer, joined the company and, together with Lone, who has played a key role in defining PANDORA's style.

    With a long history in fashionable and unique designing, Pandora Online was reputed for its great originality and genuine products. Each Pandora Charm is equipped with interior threads. The beads move freely and rotate slightly with your wrist's movement, creating an undeniable eye catching and stunning effect.You can enjoy the beauty of our discount jewelry from our online jewelry store.

    But the most amazing things which make people love Pandora Charms Australia is that Pandora jewelry can provide an opportunity to make a jewelry by yourself. Pandora jewelry has a lifestyle concept which is that there are many wonderful and special moments in woman's life. So, handmade jewelry is a good way to show how special you are. Pandora jewelry offers lots of charms and stones to customers to design. The charms are in the form of beads which can be changed according to any occasion. They have many styles and colors. Pandora jewelry can be interchanged to create new looks that you can create by your idea. For example, if you attend a birthday party you can use birthday charms and attach them to your jewelry. That's very convenient for you to use the same jewelry in a different style for different occasions. By the same way, handmade jewelry is a wonderful moment to remember when you design it by yourself.

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    Institute of Fundamental Sciences, popular as IFS among research personnel, is a renowned research institute in Sri Lanka. It conducts research on many areas including microbial biotechnology and molecular biology & genetics.

    The Microbial Biotechnology Unit

    There are two major projects currently carried out in the microbial unit.

    1. Biofilm based Biofuel Production
    Click here for more details on the project.

    2. Biofilm-based Biofertilisers
    Click here for more details on the project.

    Molecular Biology and Genetics Unit

    Researches are being conducted under two major disciplines at the moment.

    1. Plant Biology
    Find more details here

    2. Cell Biology
    Find more details here

    How to Join the IFS?

    IFS offers an ideal opportunity to people who are interested in research to carry out research under the guidance of proficient scientists- local and foreign- in well-equipped laboratories with state-of-the-art instruments. The environment of the institute is welcoming and friendly.

    Research assistants (Contract Basis)

    The vacancies will be advertised on the institute website and national media. You can check out the vacancies at IFS here (Unfortunately, there are no vacancies at the moment)

    Eligibility: A candidate should have a Bachelor’s degree (often a four year degree is required) or a Master’s degree in the fields related to the position.

    Selection criteria: the candidates will have to face a placement exam (subject related) as well as an interview.

    How to apply: anyone who wishes to apply for a research assistant position (Contract basis) should prepare and forward their applications according to the criteria mentioned in the advertisement.

    Salary Scale: Will be specified in the advertisement.

    Research Assistant (Volunteer)

    If you are interested in participating in short-term research projects at IFS, you can join the institute as a volunteer research assistant. A volunteer will not get paid but this is a great opportunity for budding scientists to hone their research skills. There is also the chance of getting recruited as a research assistant (contract basis) if any vacancy pops up.

    Eligibility: Undergraduate students, graduate students, postgraduate students and anyone (even school leavers) who is interested in science can join the institute as a volunteer research assistant. Research projects will be assigned to the volunteers based on their level of capability.

    How to apply: persons who wish to work at the institute as a volunteer should forward an application to the Director/IFS mentioning their research interest along with their CV.

    Contact details:

    In order to find out about the ongoing research projects, they should contact the respective project leader directly.

    If you are interested in the project “Biofuel production” please contact Dr. (Mrs)Renuka Ratnayake.

    Contact Details:

    If you are interested in the project “Biofertiliser” please contact Prof. Gamini Seneviratne.

    Contact Details:

    Click here to for information on joining the research at the IFS.

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    A quaternary ammonium compound, cetrimide is used as a detergent and having powerful antiseptic properties, for sterilizing surgical instruments, cleaning wounds, etc.

    Cetrimide is an purifying agent, means it has various antibacterial, antifungal and other antimicrobial properties and can be applied to skin that helps to avoid or reduce the risk of infection. It also acts as a surfactant that is it works as a detergent with cleaning properties. As a pharmaceutical ingredient, it is also used in various products like sprays, liquids, creams and applicable to a wide range of creams such as cleaning burns and wounds for disinfecting skin before injections or surgery. Because of its antimicrobial and detergent properties, many shampoos and conditioners also contain this antiseptic as an active ingredient.

    Cetrimide is able to harm the cell membranes & destroy the cellular structure of various microorganisms that causes disease including fungi, bacteria & other single cell organisms. Hence it is used as antiseptic agent in manufacturing of medicines. However, it is not effective against all bacteria, or against spores, or viruses. It is sometimes mixed with clorhexidin, another antiseptic, when used to disinfect wounds.

    In older days common antiseptics like phenol were used but Cetrimide has replaced those old types of antiseptics. Cetrimide is totally non-toxic so it can be applied to skin directly. Cetrimide is less irritating to skin compared to carbolic acid.. Due to its wide applicability cetrimide is in high demand. There are various cetrimide manufacturers all over. Many medicines & daily lotions, creams includes ceramides in various forms.

    Director of Tatva chintan pharma chem says that “since its inception, the company has focused on the production of cetrimide. Cetrimide is available in different customized forms such as Cetrimide IP, Cetrimide BP, Cetrimide USP, Cetrimide EP & are processed under the surveillance of expert professionals.” Tatva chintan pharma chem pvt ltd is a well known name in manufacturing best cetrimide & its forms, Phase transfer catalysts, Bulk API, Epoxy curing catalysts, Wittig salts, quaternary phosphonium salts, Additives for powder coatings, Zeolite templates. Tatva chintan located in Ankleshwar, Gujarat is one of the trusted and leading source for Pharmaceutical & chemical products.

    Cetrimide ip/bp/ep, cetrimide usp,cetrimide 40% strong solution bp, Bulk API, Phase transfer catalysts, Cetrimide|Phase Transfer Catalyst(PTC)|cetrimide USP|cetrimide cream|cetrimide test|of cetrimide|centrimide|cetrmide|Phase Transfer Catalyst|PTC|Tetraethylammonium Tetrafluoroborate|Triphenylphosphonium Chloride|phase transfer catalysts|phase transfer catalyst|phase transfer catalysis.

    Cetrimide is the most commonly used chemical in pharmaceutical & chemical industry. Due to its ability of being antiseptic agent it is highly demanded in pharmaceutical & chemical companies.

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    Abbott laboratories is a global company based in America that deals with pharmaceuticals and health care products. A physician from Chicago Wallace Calvin Abbott was the founder of this company which came into existence in the year 1888. It has its headquarters in North Chicago Illinois and Abbott Park. Abbott laboratories is a home for over 90,000 employees and has offices in more than 130 countries across the globe. In the year 2010, Abbott laboratories had more than $35 billion in revenue.

    The company has developed several immunodiagnostic instruments and tests for diagnosing disease conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, thyroid disease, drug abuse, pregnancy and fertility.

    It also has hands on expertise in the field of hematology enabling better monitoring of diseases and its associated treatments. With its new innovations in the area of molecular diagnostics the detection and monitoring of disease conditions such as lung and breast cancers, HIV infection and bone marrow transplants have become possible.

    Abbott laboratories have gained the topmost position in pediatric nutrition. Its products have helped the babies born pre-maturely gain weight. It gives the ideal nutritional supplement for babies and their mothers and it also manufactures special food products for babies with food intolerances.

    Popular biotech products
    This company has a diverse range of products ranging from pharmaceutical drugs to ophthalmology to nutrition. Not a single area of health care remains untouched. The following is a list of products developed by Abbott Laboratories.

    • Diagnostic products include Architect Abbott prism, cell-DYN emerald, Cell-DYN ruby and Cell-DYN sapphire in hematology. In the area of molecular diagnostics the products developed by this firm include Abbott m2000, Abbott realtime, vysis ALK Fish, path vysion and viroseq.
    • With the Abbott diabetes diagnostic tests kits for managing diabetes is now easy. This test kit yields faster results and requires small amount blood as sample. This test kit can be used at home and even in hospitals.
    • Abbott laboratories also develop cataract products, products pertaining to refractive eye surgery and corneal products.
    • Nutritional supplements for babies, mothers and adults. It also develops supplements for individuals with diseases such as cancer, diabetes, kidney disorders, celiac diseases and bone disorders such as osteoporosis.
    • Antibiotics and drugs for cardiovascular diseases, gastroenterology, metabolic disorders and woman's health.

    Latest discoveries
    The year 2013 witnessed the division of Abbott laboratories into 2 groups: Abbott and Abbvie. The division was made so that the pharmaceutical and research groups can be divided. It was done to ensure that both the areas can prosper and develop better products for the world. The following is a list of some of the pharmaceutical products developed by Abbvie.
    • Aluvia
    • Calcijex
    • Duodopa
    • Ethrane
    • Forane
    • Gengraf
    • Levophed
    • Lupron
    • Mivacron
    • Norvir
    • Prometrium
    • Sevorane
    • Ultane
    • Simdax
    • Tridione
    • Vicodine
    • Vicoprofen
    • Zemplar

    Recent company takeovers
    Abbott laboratories is achieving greater heights with each passing year. In the year 2010, the company took over Solvays SA’s pharmaceuticals unit (Press). In the same year, the firm announced that it would take over the branded generics division of Piramal healthcare, an Indian pharmaceutical company at $3.7 billion.

    Recent corporate news
    Abbott laboratories is a Fortune 200 company with more than 90, 000 people employed worldwide. The primary focus and diversification is in healthcare. Fortune has also ranked Abbott as one of the most admired companies. In more than 25 countries it has been ranked as a top employer. The firm has been awarded the Galen prize for innovation in patient care.

    Abbott laboratories is facing tough competition in the market from the generic drug manufacturers. The products of Abbott Labs can be broadly classified under three divisions - pharmaceutical, nutritional and medical. Though medical and nutritional products have constantly been in demand, pharmaceutical has remained the major earner. In 2010, revenue from Pharmaceutical products alone was $19.9 billion, which was 56.6% of the total revenue. For nutritional products it was $5.5 billion, which was 15.7% of the total revenue. For diagnostics it was $3.8 billion, which was 10.8% of the total revenue for 2010. Vascular products business stood at $3.8 billion and revenues from research and development was $3.7 billion in 2010.

    Piramal Healthcare is a leading drug care manufacturer company in India. Its' branded generic business has been acquired by Abbott Labs in 2010.
    In the second quarter of 2013 the total stock issuance of Abbott Laboratories has come down by 0.96% to 36.10.

    Work culture
    The employers have a great future at Abbott laboratories and do their best to deliver world class products and services in health care. The employers and the company quickly adapt to the changing needs in healthcare and pharma. The best part is the employers come in with a new zeal each morning to achieve something different and constructive for the world at large.

    The working environment in this firm is friendly and full of energy. Tasks allotted are finished in time and the employers are never overloaded with work. The employees are well aware of their responsibilities and never fail to meet deadlines.

    Interesting events
    Abbott laboratories have released High sensitive troponin – I assay that promises to detect risks of occurrence of heart attack at least 30 days before time. The firm has also been granted clearance by the FDA for the Freestyle Precision Pro Blood Glucose and beta-Ketone Monitoring System.

    Recent job openings -
    Abbott laboratories always welcome new and aspiring individuals who wish to do something for the world and take the firm to greater heights. Interested candidates can drop in their resume and if they are shortlisted can expect a call from the recruiters. The candidates will be called for interview for further selection process. In case you receive an appointment letter, the individuals will be given details about the compensation package and additional benefits from the firm. This is informed to all the selected candidates so that they can make their decisions accordingly. The candidates are asked to visit the Abbott website to look for recruitment details and stuff like that.

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    Gilead sciences is a pharmaceutical firm aimed at discovering, developing and manufacturing therapeutic medicines. Gilead sciences develops medications for individuals with life threatening diseases. The company primarily develops drugs for treating deadly viral infections such as HIV infection, influenza and hepatitis B. It also develops effective medications against severe respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer and inflammation.

    Gilead sciences major innovation in the area of drugs includes the first of its kind pill for HIV infected patients. This pill needs to be taken just once a day and to add to it, this is the first antiviral drug that is taken orally. This pill also has a protective effective against HIV infection in individuals of high risk groups.

    Gilead sciences is a members of the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index and the S&P 500. The name of this company is coined from Balm of Gilead.

    Popular biotech products
    Its popular biotech products for HIV / AIDS include Atripla, Complera, Emtriva, Stribild, Truvada and Viread. It also manufactures medicines for combating liver diseases that includes Hepsera and Viread. Gilead Sciences also has hands on expertise for treating cardiovascular diseases such as Letairis, Lexiscan injection and Ranexa. Medications for treating respiratory infections include Cayston and Tamiflu. It also produces injections such as AmBisome, Macugen and Vistide.

    Latest discoveries
    Gilead sciences is constantly coming up with latest pharmaceutical innovations. Of late one of its discoveries consisted of releasing an oral antiviral agent (GS 4104) that is effective against multiple strains of influenza virus. This drug arrests the viral growth and inhibits its multiplication. So far, only very few treatments were available for treating influenza until the researchers at Gilead sciences introduced the first ever oral antiviral drug.

    This drug contains active ingredients of carboxylic compounds that work by inhibiting the enzyme known as neuraminidase which is essential for the viral growth. When the drug GS 4104 was administered in mice it showed 100% survival rates with no toxicity. This drug was also found to be beneficial against several viral strains of influenza A and B.

    Recent company takeovers
    With each passing year something new happens at Gilead sciences. This company has been awarded by “Fortune” for the Fastest growing companies.
    • In the year 2006, Gilead sciences took over 2 pharmaceutical companies that manufactured drugs for treating diseases related to the pulmonary system. By the end of 2009, this company had 4000 employees employed on full – time basis.
    • In the year 2007 it merged with Nycomed fr. Atlanta – Cork at $47 million.
    • The year 2009 witnessed the merger of Gilead sciences and CV Therapeutics at $1.4 million. This merger opened new doors for the firm as it entered into the area of cardiac care.
    • In the year 2010, Gilead sciences took over 2 companies - GCI Pharmaceuticals and Arresto Biosciences at $120 million and $225 million respectively. This helped the firm further widen its areas of kinase biology and chemistry. Acquisition with Arresto Biosciences made way for further research in the area of cancer and fibrotic diseases.
    • In 2011 Gilead sciences merged with Calistoga Pharmaceuticals and Pharma, Inc. at $10.4 billion. This merger set new heights for the firm and it took lead in HCV with 7977 Sofsbuvir.
    • This year, Gilead sciences and YM Bioscinecs, Inc joined hands at $510 million. With this acquisition, the CYT387 was developed with JAK1 and JAK 2 enzymes. The development of these enzymes made positive impact on the treatment of myeloproliferative diseases, certain types of cancers and inflammatory disorders.

    Recent corporate news
    Total revenues for Gilead Sciences, Inc. increased by 15% in the second quarter of 2013. The revenues of the company rose from $2.41 billion to $2.77. As per NASDAQ news Gilead Sciences, Inc. shares are trading at $61.75, which is lower by 0.4%. It opened at $61.89 and fell by 0.25 to close at $61.75.

    As a company Gilead Sciences Inc., is focused on research. This is a biopharmaceutical company which is focused on HIV related research and also on diseased related to liver which includes Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and also cardiovascular diseases. There is significant amount of research done on diseases related to respiratory conditions.

    The growth of the company in the second quarter of the current year is driven by sales efforts in antiviral franchise. The antiviral product sales increased by nearly 15% in this quarter. With the increase in revenue the research and development expenses have also increased, as this is the focus area of the company.

    Work culture
    The work environment and working culture of Gilead sciences is awesome. One has to see it and experience it to believe it. The employees of this firm are hard-working and leave no stone unturned and strive to deliver the best services to the public. The researchers conduct research to the best of their abilities and churn out wonder drugs for chronic and life threatening illness. This company believes in working together to achieve the best. The core values consist of Integrity, teamwork, accountability and excellence.

    Gilead sciences is a store house of intellectual employees expert in the fields of biotechnology and medicine.

    Interesting events
    The most important upcoming event in the near future is European Society of Cardiology Congress 2013 scheduled on august 31 - September 4 at Amsterdam, Netherlands.

    Recent job openings -‎
    Gilead sciences is forever on the lookout for new individuals who would carry their mission to greater heights. Cultural background has nothing to do with your portfolio as long as you are qualified and passionate enough to help Gilead Sciences jump to the next level. Job openings are available and interested candidates need to drop their resume either on our website or send emails to the concerned authority at Gilead.

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    University of Belgrade institute of Molecular genetics and Genetic engineering.

    Ranked among one of the best institutes of the world, University of Belgrade offers Masters of Science in Biotechnology to it students. The Institute is associated to International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Trieste, Italy, as an affiliated centre and it is involved in all activities within this international organization. It is also oriented to biotechnological and commercial applications in human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, food production, and pharmaceutical industry.


    After World War II, the overall agricultural development created the need for organizing a serious and more comprehensive educational system and the establishment of an adequate profile of staff required for food industry, which has progressed greatly to the level of European industry of that time. This led to the development of new technological disciplines of agriculture and to the establishment of classes in subjects that were required for the training of personnel in the food industry.

    The first classes were introduced in the field of fruit production. In 1945, the subject called "Fruit and Vegetables Processing" and later the subject called "Processing of Grapes," were introduced and taught by Professor M. Josifovic. Two years later in 1947, prof. S. Stankovic introduced the subject called "Processing of Agricultural Products". Department of Animal Husbandry and prof. A. Ognjanovic introduced in 1956 the subject called "Technology of Animal Products", while prof. B. Stevic introduced "Technological Microbiology".

    With the reorganization of the Faculty in 1973, the Institutes became independent business units, and The Institute of Food Technology and Biochemistry operates since that time independently as a part of The Faculty of Agriculture. The new curriculum in the Department of Food Technology introduces five teaching groups: Fruits and Vegetables Technology, Technology of Alcoholic and Non-alcoholic beverages, Technology of Meat, Technology of Milk, and the Technology of Tobacco. By this curriculum classes are held until 1977, when the reformed plans divided students in the three constituent groups: Conservation and Fermentation Technology, Technology of Agricultural Products and Livestock Products Technology.

    In year 2007, the curriculum was reformed and coordinated with the European system of education in which teaching at the undergraduate level lasts for 4 years. Master’s and doctoral studies that last 1 year, and doctoral studies that last 3 years were also introduced. Under the new curriculum all courses take one semester. For all groups at the Department of Food Technology, first 4 semesters are the same, and in the fifth semester, the students can choose one of the four teaching modules. At the undergraduate level, following teaching modules were introduced: Technology of Animal Products, Technology of Conservation and Fermentation, Harvest Technology and Safety and Quality Management in Food Production. The master program is a unique program with three elective classes. Electives 1 and 2 direct the student towards block 3, where from 16 disciplines offered students are supposed to choose the one for the master thesis. Specialist studies at the Department of Food Technology are organized in 4 modules: Technology of Plant Products, Animal Products Technology, Technological Microbiology and Food Chemistry. Doctoral studies are first introduced in the form of standard classes which take 3 semesters, while the 4, 5 and 6 semesters are reserved for research study and dissertation of the chosen topic from electoral bloc 3.

    Department Food Technology and Biochemistry
    Classes, Modules, and Teaching

    Department of Food Technology is dedicated to the realization of high-quality academic study programs at all levels of study, the development of relevant scientific research, as well as the implementation of the acquired knowledge and skills in food technology and other related industries and society as a whole.

    The main purpose of the studies is the realization of educational, professional and research goals and objectives in the field of food technology.

    The type and mode of study are directed towards the strategic development of the food industry. The main purpose of the studies is education of the professionals directly involved in the various branches of the food industry (processing of raw materials of plant or animal origin).
    The curriculum is primarily focused on active and creative teaching. The priority of the curriculum is the education of the staff to use their knowledge in order to contribute to improving the quality of food products, ie. food that is meant for wide population, with permanent control and quality control of these products. Through the introduction of the regulations and standards of technology, engineers can manage not only the quality of the food but also the working conditions and the environment.

    In addition to solving the problems of food technology, food engineers themselves are willing to educate small processors holding their family businesses so that their production become in line with the applicable quality standards. That is why we insist on the modern teaching where the student besides lectures, exercises, and practical training, will be required to write papers, essays and actively participate in class.
    Department of Food Technology at the undergraduate level has an average of 200-250 students enrolled in four educational modules.

    Theoretical and practical teaching is performed in all classes. In this sense, students are educated in four teaching modules:

    - Technology of Animal Products,
    - Conservation and Fermentation Technology,
    - Agricultural Products and Technologies
    - Safety and Quality Management in Food Production.

    Students can choose one of four elective courses in foreign languages. Within the core curricula, areas of expertise are specific to the above mentioned profile.

    The module Technology of Animal Products teaches about: meat processing technology, milk production technology, processing of accompanying products in the meat industry, dairy technology, microbiology, and animal products quality management.
    The module conservation and fermentation technology teaches about: conservation by applying cooling, heat preservation, technology of fruits and vegetables, fruit juices technology, refrigeration and freezing of food products, prepared food technology, wine technology, technology of alcoholic beverages, etc.

    The module harvest technology teaches about: the rheological properties of food, technology of oil and fats, sensory analysis of products based on field materials, modification of fats and oils, toxicology of products based on raw materials, the technology of confectionery products, technologies of processing of tobacco, malt and beer technology, grain technology, the technology of flour, sugar and starch technology.

    The module for security and quality of food is teaching about: basic technology of fruits and vegetables, fermentation technologies, crop products, the basics of meat technology, dairy technology basics, management and statistical quality control.


    Teachers of this Department have been and are right now the members of national and international associations, forensic experts, advisers, consultants, designers of many companies for fruit and vegetables, breweries, cold storage, dairy, meat processing plants, industry, baby food, etc.

    In the past, the Department of Food Technology had organized many conferences where its teachers and staff had the opportunity to present the results of their scientific work and submit reports on the projects conducted with the support of the Ministry of Science of Serbia. Two major symposia were held in 1996 and in 1998, and they were attended by more than 1000 colleagues and experts in the field of food technology.

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    Mission and Vision:

    The Center for Biotechnology in Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Maharashtra was established in year 2000 with the prime motive of facilitating the commencement of young students in medical biotechnology, by imparting them with superior education and efficiently training them to pave through a research career or get recruited in relevant industries or hone their medical skills for transforming them into an emerging successful entrepreneur. The Center of Biotechnology was approved by UGC on 31st May 2005 by the Ministry of HRD.

    .jpg  PravaraInstitute.jpg (Size: 56.53 KB / Downloads: 5)

    The Center aims at providing impetus to the activities of education and knowledge acquisition among students and the technical know-how related to the field of biotechnology. It is dedicated towards productively combining the thrill of innovations and stern academic studies. Today, it stands desirous of serving as India’s premier institute. The Center is visualizing on interdepartmental laboratories, centers and multidisciplinary programs based on strong research bases. It is dedicated towards becoming a sacred temple of science disseminating knowledge, wisdom and intelligence.

    The 2 years degree program trains candidates in varied skills of research methodologies, problem recognition, problem solving capabilities and critical evaluation in the current and advance art of biotechnology. Candidates would gain hands on experience on handling commonly used experimental protocols in genetics, molecular biology and nucleic acid chemistry. They will also gain the experience of independent designing, observing, executing and interpreting results of experiments in order to build a hypothesis.

    Faculties and Syllabus

    The faculties are well trained and possess exceptional skills for conducting researches and providing interdisciplinary training in elemental areas at the forecourt of medical biotechnology. They are adept in cultivating in proper research environments that would foster the expansions of local as well as national biotechnology industries.

    The syllabus exclusively covers all the latest developments in medical biotechnology arenas. It has been specifically designed grounded on market needs wherein the employability and grooming students for developing key entrepreneur skills are kept to be the prime objectives. Healthy interaction in between industry and academia is their basic motto. Additionally, contract researches are also undertaken. For proper mentoring of students, the center has some exceptional laboratories and state-of-art equipments that include

    - General laboratory for biochemistry studies and microbiology.
    - Critical laboratory for genetic engineering studies and molecular biology.
    -Bioinformatics laboratory- holds complete software package for partial protein characterization, sequence comparison, restriction enzyme site identification and primer design.
    - Tissue culture laboratory promoting in vitro studies.

    Eligibility Criteria and Mode of Admission

    Candidates subjective to following criteria are eligible for masters program
    1. Should be medically fit
    2. Must have passed one of the qualifying examinations mentioned below from a recognized Indian university holding a minimum of 50% marks.
    - Bachelor degree in a Science stream with Biotechnology/Biochemistry/ Chemistry/ Microbiology/ LifeSciences
    - B.Sc. Agri Biotechnology.
    - BAMS/ BHMS/ BUMS/ B.Pharm

    Admissions are purely based on marks obtained in B.Sc or any other equivalent examinations from a recognized university. The course fees are Rs 75000 per year and the course duration is for 2 years. The total intake capacity has been kept at 30 for both undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Admission forms with prospectus are available at Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences office for a payment of Rs 300. You can also download it from the official website, fill in necessary details and submit along with a DD of Rs 300.

    For all undergraduate and postgraduate programs, admissions would be conducted on basis of performances in All India Entrance Test conducted by the PIMS University. The Admission Committee is solely responsible for conducting the entrance test, declaring the merit list and results and final admission and counseling.

    For BSc+ MSc integrated program in medical biotechnology, undergraduate course, following prerequisites are a must
    - Candidates must be of minimum 17 years as on or before December 31st.
    - Candidates should have passed 12th examination from any recognized board with Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English or Mathematics in a single attempt and should not have secured less than 50 percentage marks.
    - Admission would be purely on the basis of merit in the qualifying examination.

    Infrastructure Details

    The unitary hospital and college campus is built on 120 acres of land with room for further expansion. The administrative block of the biotechnology college stands on 19315 square feet surrounded by lawns and greeneries. Its central library, ventilated and well lighted can accommodate 350 students at a time. With 427 biotechnology books, 250 annual subscription journals, online information databases, medline CDs, photocopy and Xerox facilities, the library is uniquely spectacular. Furthermore, the center has a mini auditorium, 4 examination halls, audio visual section and center photographic section. Well equipped independent central workshops are laboratories support quality learning and greater perspectives for advanced research. Hostel facilities are also provided for girls and boys within the campus along with other standard facilities and security.

    In order to realize the most suitable, strengthening and encouraging fundamental research environment for students, the university has created a modern and fully equipped animal house in accordance with CPCSEA guidelines, which is the first of its kind in rural India. Centrally air conditioned, entirely sterile and humidified, the house can accommodate a minimum of 100 mammalians and 100 rodents. It is also equipped with clinical and experimental laboratory, operation theatre, sick rooms, separate breeding rooms and quarantine rooms. Animals are housed in separate rooms, species wise in polycarbonate cages with exceptional facilities of automatic feeding, abundant supply of sterile water proper drainage systems.

    Research and Development

    Existing research programs are being conducted on the following broad areas:
    - Mechanism of action of antiviral biologicals.
    - T cell dichotomy and human macrophage differentiation.

    Future research projects would be based on design and development of novelty biological drugs. The center would actively engage in identifying therapeutic cytokines, modifying action of existing cytokines and development of antagonist to cytokines. Additionally, cytokines in form of diagnostic tools would also be investigated.
    Apart from it, the center would also conduct:
    - Screening, identification of demarcation of bioactive molecules from medicinal and herbal plants and marine fauna and flora, specifically anticancer, immuno- modulatory and antiviral molecules.
    - Development of probiotics.

    The University is truly unique in many ways. The society serves it as a center of excellence on meaningful medical education, research and health care. The trust has received several accolades for its pioneering work. It provides great opportunities for meritorious students to transform into need based and appropriated health providers in any environment.

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