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    Hello, i want to know about Nanotechnology, is it good to go for in Nanotechnology after in biotech ?
    i mean how much the field related to bio? what is the future prospects? like research works?

    Bharat Manna.

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            GATE is Locked ! Every graduate from an average university dreams of in reputed institutes like IITs or NITs and I am not an exception. But he has to unlock the GATE to reach there. Luckily we all have that ‘Key’ but most of us fail to unlock just because of not having the proper knowledge , how to use it.

            Being a biotechnology student in my early college days I fell in love with DNA  Tongue . Higher study and research became my only goal. Now to achieve my goal and enter that world the gate pass was Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE ). Well, I was also in the race like all others. I appeared in GATE 2015 and finished with 94.46 percentile. It was totally unexpected as I wished for much more. I was disappointed with my performance because I could feel what I had missed. I missed the dream IITs just because of some silly mistakes. Here I share my own experience and tips that I feel may help someone like me who desires to crack Gate and become an IITian.

    Love your subject : This is the first key to success. Whatever you do, always do it from heart. Only then you ‘ll not get tired with the hard works and efforts you put . Better to say enjoy study.

    AIM High : While you set your goal, say you want to crack gate, always aim high like you ‘ll be among the top 100 rankers. Just think, you are not different from those guys who will secure such ranks. The one who will be 1st in GATE 2016 is someone like you, someone having two eyes, two ears, one nose , and most importantly one brain. You have the same grey matter , so why don’t you use it?

    When to Start preparation : Being the Admin of a Facebook group named ‘’BiotechWorld’’, I often face this kind of questions. Well, honestly speaking it depends on the candidate. If you have very much clear concept of the basics, 3-4 months is enough for preparation to get a respectable score in Gate. But, for average students like me the time runs out due to semester exams, projects, seminar, workshops etc. So, what I want to suggest you all, is after completing a semester, don’t say the subjetcs Good bye, just be in touch with those are in gate syllabus. Just at weekends review one or two chapters from the earlier sem , say you are in 5th sem, u can read microbiology as it is generally taught in 2nd or 3rd sem. Now, when you are at the end of 6th sem, start preparing for Gate seriously. Honestly speaking, six months time is enough for all category students.

    How to Start preparation: If you are a beginner and you are reading this article first I ‘ll suggest you to go through the GATE syllabus very carefully. Read the previous years question papers and make yourself familiar with the exam like  question pattern, the marks division etc. Next ask yourself where you are standing now. How much effort you have to put. Then start to prepare subject wise. I try to summarise the whole thing below.

    Two Subjects not to Ignore at all : See, all the gate aspirants do have minimum knowledge of their core subjects. But what will make the difference is the Mathematics and the General Aptitude Section. From my own experience there are not too much hard questions from these parts. You have to just practice it more and more.
    i)   The Books To be followed: For my preparation I followed Engineering Mathematics by Pal and Das ( vol I, II and III ) , Numerical Methods by K. Das . But if you get any math book with topics covered well you can easily follow that.
    ii)  For General Aptitude section use any good book and try to develop your reasoning ability. For GA I ‘ll suggest the Numerical and Verbal Ability Book by Gateforum .
    iii) For mathematics must do the Linear Algebra ( Matrix and Determinant must topic ), Sequence and series, Differential equations and Probability (This is very important to solve many other questions in genetics so be master of this). You ‘ll get min 10 marks out of 15 (approx ) if you cover the above mentioned topics.
    iv) After that most importantly solve these two sections from all the previous papers. Hope you ‘ll able to do most of them.

    Now the Core Biotechnology : According to me I list the most important subjects here:
    1. Bioprocess Engineering : This is one of the most scoring subjects in gate as maximum questions are numerical answer type (see, the numerical ans. type questions don’t have any negative marking so attempt all these ).
    i) For bioprocess there are two very popular books. One is the Bioprocess Engineering Principles, by Pauline M. Doran and the other is the Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts, by Shuler and Kargi. Both are excellent books but I followed  the 2nd one.
    ii) Emphasise on these topics : Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation , chemostat problems, monod equation, sterilization principle, scale-up technique.
    iii) What I suggest for bioprocess is that first go through the chapters well then write down all the formula of the chapter in a copy. After that close your eyes try to memorise these formula along with the basic principle of it. I assure you, this ‘ll help a lot while solving a problem.

    2. Genetics and Molecular biology : These are also two very important scoring subjects.
    i) For Genetics you can blindly follow Genetics-A Conceptual Appoarch by Benjamin Pierce . In genetics many numerical questions are asked. To improve your problem solving ability you can follow- Genetics through Problems by B.N. Behera.
    ii) For Molecular Biology I preferred iGenetics: Molecular Approach by Russell. But you can use any good book like Kerp or Watson if you wish.
    iii) For genetics numerical problems I ‘ll suggest to focus on the following topics : Mendelian inheritance , Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping, Hardy-Weinberg Law of population genetics.

    3. Immunology: For Immunology no doubt go for Kuby, the best book I have ever read.
    i) It is one of my favourite subjects so I feel all topics are important. Still you can focus on these topics: Antigen-Antibody structure and classes, Ag-Ab Reactions, MHC, CD markers , Complement system.
    ii) For Immunology I must recommend you to watch the YouTube video lectures of Dr. Mobeen Sayed. I bet after watching all the 102 lectures you ‘ll fall in love with immunology.

    4. Bioinformatics: For this I got very few books with basic concepts. Most people follow the book by Rastogi, but I found it little bit difficult. I read the book Essential Bioinformatics by  Jin Xiong and it really helped me a lot.
    i) In bioinfo the important topics are the different databases, different file formats ,FASTA, BLAST, PAM, BLOSUM etc.

    5. Microbiolgy : For this you can go for Prescott, a very nice book.
    i) The important topics are Microbial growth related problems, Microbial genetics, Antibiotics and their mode of action.

    6. Biochemistry : If you want a deep concept, Nelson and Cox is the best one. But for Gate preparation I think Biochemistry by U Satyanarayan is enough.
    i) The topics that you must not ignore are All about Enzymes, the different biochemical assays, signal transduction pathways.

    7. Recombinant DNA Technology : It is the real application of biotechnology at the molecular level and one of my favourite areas. If you have enough time, you can start with the book Principles of Gene Manipulation by Primrose else go for Analysis of genes & genomes by Richard J. Reece.
    i) The important topics to be focussed are Restriction and modification enzymes,  Vectors, cDNA and genomic DNA library, PCR, gene transfer technologies etc.
    ii) Numerical come from PCR, Restriction enzyme digestion , no of restriction sites in a given DNA etc.

    8. Plant and Animal Biotechnology: well, in recent years not much questions are asked from these two subjects. But for safe side, don’t ignore these.
    i) For Plant Biotechnology the book I would suggest is Introduction to Plant Biotechnology by H.S.Chaowla , but for genetic engg. of Plant part you can go fo Slater.
    ii) For Animal Biotechnology you can follow the book by Ian Freshney.

    9. Process Biotechnology : Honestly speaking I did not read this subject completely. I just read the different products and it’s source microorganism. This is the only area in this subject from where the questions are asked.
    i) If you want to completely read this you can follow Biotechnology by U Satyanarayan, here the topics of gate syllabus are completely covered.

    • So far all the discussion were for the beginners. I recommend to follow the above books when you first face the subject, that means at the time of semester preparation. Next, say u have 6 months left for the GATE exam. Most of the subjects you read earlier are lost in the black hole of your brain. How to start then?

    • There are few combined book available at market like the books GATE Tutor by Arihant Publication and GATE Biotechnology by GK Publication. Most students buy these books for overall preparation, even I bought them too. These books contain most of the topics of gate but acc. to me not upto the mark except the GA and Math sections. For GA and Math you can take help of these two if you wish. Moreover what I found about these books, there are lots of confusing ans. of the MCQs and sometimes wrong too. So is there no single book you can rely?

    • Oh yes, there is one. Biotechnology : A Problem Approach by Pathfinder Publication. I really loved it. This is very much authentic and well written. At the final months you can read this book only along with your previously made notes. If you read this book completely, i can assure you to get at least 98 percentile.
    • Please note : I have most of the eBooks I mentioned above. So if you need any feel free to contact me to the email-id given at the end of this article.

    • So far, it was all about the study materials and good books. But a competitive exam is not only the test of knowledge. It is how you control your mind in the specified three hours duration. Here is the big mistake I did. In my personal life there were some problems due to which I had to clear gate and it was kind of MUST. This brought me unnecessary pressure and tension. It is true that we often cannot give our best because we fear to fail. This prevents you to give your best in the proper situation. I think there are many students like me who suffer with such pressure that pulls them back. I ‘ll tell how these tension and pressure forced me to do so many mistakes.

    • But before that, let me tell you that after appearing GATE I felt , securing a decent score is not at all a big deal. There are some tricks and techniques you have to follow. First of all if you get 55 to 60 marks you ‘ll be in top 100. ( Though cut-off and marks vary each year)
    i)  In General Aptitude section there is 10 questions. (1 to 10 ).First five with ( 1 to 5 )1 mark and rest 5 (6 to 10 )with 2 marks. There are 4-5 questions you can easily ans. So you can get say 10 from this out of 15.
    ii) Next, in Biotechnology section there are 55 questions including math. Out of these 25 (1 to 25) questions are of 1 mark and rest 30 (26 to 55) questions are of 2 marks.
    iii)  From Mathematics there are around 15 marks question and if you follow my previous suggestions you can easily get 10 marks from that. So you have 20 marks in hand.
    iv) Now, you have to ans 55-20=35 marks more. If you ans 12 questions with 2 marks and 11 questions with 1 marks you get 24+11=35.
    v) So out of total 65 questions if you correctly ans. around 35 questions you are done. Sounds so easy right? Yes…there is no big deal to find the easiest questions and ans. them correctly. Just keep calm .
    vi) Now let me tell you, for that much you don’t even have to read the whole syllabus. In core biotechnology, if you read Bioprocess engg. Genetics, Immunology, Bioinformatics, Plant Biotechnology, rDNA technology and rest selected topics only, you can easily ans. the desired no. of questions.
    vii)  Moreover the most important thing please ‘Do not Guess’. Just ans. those questions you are confident enough.

    • Now, when the exam days are coming closer, try to take mock tests for self-evaluation. Many students enroll for the online mock test series from various institutes like Biotecnica, Gateforum etc. But from my own experience I suggest don’t go for it. The question standard of the first one is below the gate standard whereas the second one is too much hard. Better buy some mock papers from Arihant/ GKP/Pathfinder etc. and give your self-test at home.

    • Try to solve the mathematics early in the morning with fresh mood.  In later hours you can read/solve the MCQs. After lunch take rest, watch TV or anything you like to make your mind free. In the afternoon start reviewing some topics you have already covered. In the evening read the fresh topics/subjects. After dinner for 1-2 hour practice General Aptitude everyday. This was just suggestion. Anyone can make his own comfortable and flexible timetable. But the most important thing is to sleep well at least 6-8 hours. Drink plenty of water and good healthy food. Never ignore your health at the time of preparation.

    • The Vital 3 hours : Yes, that 3 hours are the judgement hours. May be you have read a lot, may be you have enough knowledge but if you can’t show that knowledge in that day in the exam hall, your all knowledge is in vein ( just for current point of view, Knowledge is precious and never go in vein) . I was too much tensed the day before the exam, lot of things were going in my mind. Clearing GATE was  a big question of my life so , I was pressurised . In the exam hall, the questions were not that much hard. While coming out of the hall I was feeling relaxed. But when I started memorising the questions or few people started posting the questions in my facebook group, I was like what I have done.. ! there were so many silly mistakes. Just saying one. There was a question on genetics whose ans. was in % . I got 0.312 and instead of putting the ans. as 31.2% I entered as 0.312 . At least I did around 10 marks wrong this way. Luckily most of them were numerical ans. type so I didn’t get much negative marking for that.  But if I could control my mind , my concentration I could have much better result.

    • From my story all what I want to say is that feel the exam as a game where only two results are possible. Either you win or you loose. Just think of the CWC2015. India is no doubt a great team. It won 7 consecutive matches. But in the knockout match it performed bad and it was out of the world cup. Everything is well if the end is well. The GATE exam is also like same knockout match, you can not perform well in those 3 hours. You are out even receiving a call from iits. Just to tell you, one of my friend got only 7 marks more than me and ended up  with 98 percentile.  Hope you can understand now why I am stressing this point so much. A single mark matters and if you can keep yourself calm and cool you can save lots of marks.

    • Well, that was enough. You probably feeling bored now. So, the final thing is just love your subjects, have faith in yourself , cracking GATE is not a big deal, if you try with proper planning and efforts you can easily see yourself in the top 100. Smile

    With my Best Wishes,
    Bharat Manna
    (email id -

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    Hello sir, I would like to know when to start for the preparations for IIT JAM as I am in my first year B.Sc and also I would like to know whether bioinformatics is a right option for M.Sc without any software basics in UG level?

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    I am Chythra, currently doing my Master's in biotechnology from New York University, NY. This is my second semester right now, and I am looking for summer internship opportunities in USA. I needed to know apart from Linkedin, what are the other ways to get in contact with officials from the biotechnology industry so that I can get a breakthrough into the industry, I need to connect with experienced people so that I can learn more about the current industrial trends and norms. Kindly if anyone has information about it would be very helpful.

    Chythra Rani Chandregowda
    Teaching Assistant
    New York University

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    This thread attempts to help students pursuing Masters in Biotechnology or related field to make some informed career decisions. We would like to thank our user "aruporacle" for asking the relevant questions. Following is a summary of the conversation between "aruporacle" and "SunilNagpal":

    Post from aruporacle:
    Dear Sunil,

    Need your advice and some guidance please.

    My daughter is currently studying M.Tech in Biotechnology from NIT Rourkela and will complete in June 2016.

    If we wish to admit her in NSU, Singapore for her PHD in Biotechnology. 

    1. Which Intake Period (August 2016 or January 2017 or August 2017) is appropriate and recommended for her PHD, assuming her M.Tech result will not be declared before June 2016? 

    2. Depending on the intake period, can she use her existing GATE-Biotechnology February 2014 score (All India Rank of 292, percentile = 97.27%) or will she have to again appear for GATE in February 2016?


    Response from Sunil:
     Your daughter should first apply for August 2016 intake (applications will start by May 15, 2015 and shall continue till November 2015). This would let her utilize her GATE 2014 score card which would expire in March 2016. The interviews for August 2016 intake would be organized in January-February 2016 (her GATE 2014 score card would be valid till then). To ensure a back-up, she should appear for GATE 2016 as well. Applications for January 2017 intake would last till May 2016 (ample time to apply for the January 2017 intake using GATE 2016 results).

    There is need not be any worry about the declaration of the results. They will seek marksheets till penultimate semester only. Once the results are declared, she should ensure that she takes all her documents along.

    Although she can apply for January 2016 intake as well, but completing M.Tech would definitely add to her resume/strength. 

    Hope it helps
    If there's anything else that I can help with, do let me know.

    Best wishes

    Current post from aruporacle:
    Dear Sunil,

    Thank you very much for your responses and clarifications to my queries.

    Yes, I need your help to guide my daughter for getting a job opportunity. She is in fact looking for a job in biotech industry to gain some industry experience instead of doing her PhD now. 
    After passing out her BTech from PESIT, Bangalore in 2012, she was placed in WIPRO Technologies for SAP software related assignments which she did not enjoy much and hence she quit after working for 7-8 months to pursue her masters. But in her M.Tech program also, she is not getting the right kind of exposure. So she needs a job to get the practical exposure and skills so that she can apply her potential and contribute.

    So, can you please suggest how to go about it?
    1. what are the job opportunities she should avail after completing her M.Tech in bio technology from NIT Rourkela in June 2016?
    2. which companies are relevant for her with M.Tech degree?
    3. How to apply or which are the exams?
    4. Is NET also ok and applicable?

    Kindly advise and help.
    best regards,

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    I m a B.Sc. 2nd yr student. I m interested in doing training. can someone plzz help me knw hw to go abt it.....

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  • 04/04/15--12:27: molecular medicine
  • I have got AIR 57 general category in  IIT jam biotech exam.I don't think I will be able to get a seat so all hopes with jnu ceeb now.I have applied for molecular medicine too in jnu.I find it really interesting but won't that be a very confined field in terms of job availability??

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  • 03/15/15--06:12: GATE BT 2016
  • GATE 2016 is on the cards now, and the lines for application are expected to open in Sep-Oct 2015. GATE, undoubtedly is the most sought after exams for admission in IITs and IISc and other top notch colleges in India and abroad. This article is thus aimed at providing you up to date information on GATE BT 2016.

    About GATE and GATE Biotechnology (India)

    The Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is the most coveted examination in India that tests the overall scientifc and technical aptitude of various undergraduate students in engineering and science. Jointly conducted by the top notch institutes of the country -- [i]Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
    and the conventional seven Indian Institutes of Technology (Bombay, Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras and Roorkee) on behalf of the National Coordination Board – GATE, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD), Government of India, GATE ensures a standard screening of undergraduate students of various streams from various colleges of the country for a Post Graduate (PG) or PhD degree in the coveted IITs/IISc and other top institutes/universities of the country.[/i]

    GATE BT (Biotechnology) was introduced as a separate subject in GATE in the year 2010. Before 2010, GATE XL (Life Sciences) used to be there for all branches of Biology/Life Sciences. But, considering the technical inclination of Biotechnology field, GATE BT was introduced as a separate subject from 2010 onwards. Thus, currently, both GATE BT and GATE XL exist and cater to the needs of Life Sc./Biology/Biotechnology students.

    Scholarship through GATE

    Those students who qualify GATE and are admitted to an insitute through the screening procedure, are eligible for a monthly minimum stipend of Rs 12000/- which was earlier Rs 8000/- . Some institutes still offer Rs 8000/- p.m stipend.
    The stipend is given against the duties fulfilled by the students as Teaching Assistants, by conducting tutorial/laboratory classes of their juniors in the institute.
    GATE 2016 Organizer
    Going by the conventional trend, it is expected that Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Bangalore will  be the organizing institute for GATE 2016. We will keep you posted of the updates here.
    Recommended Books for GATE BT 2016
    Please click this link : to find the complete detail on important subjects and books to follow for GATE Biotechnology 2016.
    Important Topics for GATE BT 2016
    One may refer the article: to find the list of crucial 25 topics for GATE BT 2016 preparations. The topics are compiled after a comprehensive analysis of previous year papers of GATE BT.
    We will keep you posted of all the important updates on GATE BT 2016 under this thread. Keep watching this space for staying up to date! It's recommended to “subscribe to this thread”, once you comment under this thread, which will help you to get regular emails about any activity on this thread.
    All the Best!
    Best Wishes!
    Sunil Nagpal

    Question Posted by >> dipak0mukherjee

    I am now in third year and 6th semester is coming on May. I have started preparation for Gate BT I have only one year...I have checked the year wise list of conducting gate institutes...and from this I have guessed that IISC Bangalore will conduct gate 2016..But my question is as IISC Bangalore has ug courses in B.Sc biology how should I prepare there are so many subjects like neurobiology, hormones and endocrine system  Sad and if questions will come from those topics then it will create problem as these topics are not in gate bt syllabus..plz help...

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    Not many in India and, of-course in the world would know that recently in November 2014, govt. of India declared the Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani , Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) as an Independent Ministry! The now ministry of AYUSH was once Department of Indian System of Medicine and  Homeopathy  (ISM&H), which was created in March 1995. The department was renamed to AYUSH in 2003, but very recently, under the leadership of PM Narendra Modi, it got elevated to a full fledged Ministry: AYUSH.

    Objectives of the Ministry of AYUSH

    • To upgrade the educational standards in the Indian Systems of Medicines and Homoeopathy colleges in the country.
    • To strengthen existing research institutions and ensure a time-bound research programme on identified diseases for which these systems have an effective treatment.
    • To draw up schemes for promotion, cultivation and regeneration of medicinal plants used in these systems.
    • To evolve Pharmacopoeial standards for Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy drugs.

    National Institutes Under AYUSH

    Creating a separate Ministry for AYUSH reflects upon the seriousness of the Indian government in promoting across the globe the values and utility of Indian systems of Medicine and research. It should encourage the budding biologists to look for a novel line of career in Indian systems of Medicines.

    Please feel free to add new and useful information (be it queries or comments) under this thread.

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    This year IIT Kanpur IIT Kharagpur and IIT Bombay have released their interview dates and all are clashing i.e. 12th may and 13th may for IIT Kanpur and IIT Bombay and 13th and 14th may for IIT Kharagpur. They are forcing us to choose among the best institutes in the country. A interview in an IIT does not mean that you will get a seat so this decision highly decreases our chances to get admission in IITs inspite of having a rank within 100. i think we should raise our voices against this issue.

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  • 04/29/15--01:08: Gene of interest isolation
  • Can you please explain the following in a simple language- When we isolate nucleic acid from any tissue like cheek cells and go for restriction endonuclease treatment, we get huge numbers of fragments. These fragments represent portions of DNA from different chromosomes. Now if we do electrophoresis of the same, we will gey bands at different distances, based on sizes. Now I have three questions- 01. How we identify and isolate the gene of interest from here. 02.How we allocate the fragments containing genes to respective chromosomes. 03. For long genes, how do we ascertain that the entire gene is represented by restriction endonuclease treatment. Thanks and regards.

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    The most crucial time has come for the highly motivated prospective scholars. GATE is over and the results are out along with the list of selected students for screening tests and interviews.

    One of the most sought after, among all the top Indian institutes to pursue M.Tech/PhD in the field of life sciences, has been Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur. One nice attribute of IIT-Kanpur's selection procedure for M.Tech in the Dept. of Biological Sciences and Bio-Engineering (BSBE) is that they give the chance to prove your intelligence, irrespective of your rank. As you may have observed, a small decrease in gate score, leads to a huge change in rank, Dept. of BSBE, IIT-Kanpur, does consider this fact and calls, a huge number of aspirants, who, despite being intelligent and highly motivated, commit few errors, and lose good rankings (False negatives). They also have in mind that the ones getting high ranks, might have got it by fluke (False positives).

    The overall process of selection of Dept of BSBE, IIT-K, comprises of 2 stages. Firstly there’s a screening test followed by interviews of the screened candidates. So, first, let me talk about the screening test.

    The screening test comprises of multiple choice questions, designed to test the research aptitude of the students. The questions are framed from different scientific fields. Conceptual questions from Physics, chemistry, Biology, Mathematics and general science are the main constituents of the paper. There is no particular syllabus, but for those, who have a better understanding of their past studies, can easily attempt the questions even without preparation.
    To get a flavour of the types of questions that come in the test, one can refer to questions which have come in CSIR-NET, paper A and B. Also, the questions of this screening test are quite similar to those which come in the TIFR entrance test for biological sciences. Aspirants can also refer to these too.

    Also, to test the writing skills of the candidates, one essay writing section is also there. Four to five topics like “Role of women in leadership” or some issues with academia/research are given, and an essay is to be written on any one. In this case, don’t be verbose. Write crisp and to the point, and avoid using fancy words.

    Practicing such kind of questions is enough to get you pass the first hurdle.

    The most important stage of selection, and the second hurdle, is the interview. The person who manages to impress the panel, gets the chance to experience the academic life of IIT-K.

    My personal experience:

    After clearing the screening test (which I was pretty sure of because I had cleared the TIFR entrance test and NET prior, and most of the questions looked similar) all the candidates were allotted time slots for interview. Once I reached inside the department, I saw all the aspirants with their books and notes, studying in isolation which made me panic (NB: do not get scared of these people, coz most of them don’t get selected as they are too nervous). I sat with one of my acquaintance, whom I met during the interviews of IIT-Kharagpur, later became my batch mate at IIT-Kanpur. We chatted till our names were called. As I entered the interview room, I saw 5 faculty members of the department, waiting for their next prey. The first question asked was, why M.Tech, why not PhD.? Luckily it was easy for me as I was pretty sure why I wanted to do masters first. I told them I am not knowledgeable enough to pursue PhD. The argued and tried to divert me, but that’s the main catch, they wanted to know my level of dedication (NB: in such scenarios, follow your own principles and heart and never digress). Secondly, I was asked to mention 3 of my favourite subjects (NB: In such scenarios, always tell subjects, which are linked. Not just 3 random subjects which you know the best). As I told them my favourites, they asked me the reason, and asked me, how they are related. I was prepared for this and answered. Then they started asking technical questions related to those subjects which were very conceptual in nature. Here, the candidate has a chance to drive the interview as per his/her wish but refrain yourself from giving wrong answers. Be confident and if you don’t know any answer, tell the panel, the truth. Overall, by their questions, they gave me a tour of 5-6 fields of science; from rDNA technology to protein engineering, evolutionary biology and finally to drug design and protein ligand interactions. While making the panel laugh and entertaining them, I answered all their queries, and my last question was “What is the meaning of your name?”. As I told them the meaning of my name, which actually is “experience”, they had a nice laugh and told me that I actually stood up to my name, which was the final nail in the coffin, and I was sure, I got the licence for pursuing M.Tech from IIT-K and I finally managed to get a masters from the institute.

    Takeaway lessons:

    1. Be confident and bold. Confidence is something, which gets reflected in your personality, which helps in impressing people.
    2. Never digress from what you believe. This tenacity is what they want to check.
    3. Never give wrong answers or else, you’ll be dragged into the loop of wrong facts, and ultimately, you’ll end up contradicting yourself (Yes, the professors are too brilliant and they love feasting on confusion). If you’re confused, just admit it. There’s no shame in admitting your limitations (even the brightest mind don’t know everything).
    4. Be funny. The panel members are also human beings, having sense of humour. After interviewing so many nervous people, they expect some humour and entertainment. Remember, entertain the panel, and increase your chances of getting selected.
    5. Chat with other candidates and make friends because, career is not the only thing in life.
    6. Never get nervous by seeing book worms or professors or the ambience. Once you get selected, nothing else matters.
    7. Lastly, keep calm and do your part.

    Best wishes to the aspirants.


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    I am completing BSc biotechnology this year and I want to study MSc in biotechnology what is the best field in biotechnology that I can study?

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    Making Career with CSIR-NET-JRF: Life Sciences.

    In this world of extreme competition success not only goes to those who work differently but also to those who plan differently. NET (National eligibility test) has been described as a pioneer step towards becoming a top notch research worker or a lecturer in the country.

    It was in 1983 that CSIR started a common research fellowship for identifying young talents with scientific temper in the form of NET (National Eligibility Test) and providing financial support to the eligible young talents. Since, 1986 the JRF entrance examination has been shared with UGC, thus the exam was renamed as CSIR-NET-JRF entrance examination. UGC had also recognized NET as the minimum eligibility for lectureship in 1989. Today CSIR with its 19 scholarship schemes acts as the strongest pillar, supporting academicians and researchers. Amongst its entire support scheme, the most popular and competitive is the CSIR-NET-JRF entrance examination.

    Amendments in Examination pattern:
    NET is conducted twice in a year in the month of June and Dec., and the results are announced within three month of the examination. It was in Dec, 2010 the pattern of CSIR-NET-JRF entrance examination changed from subjective to objective one. Moreover the validity of the CSIR NET JRF examination for availing fellowship was also increased from one to two years in 2012 extending the eligibility to even graduate students under the jurisdiction that they should be able to complete their post graduation within a time period of two years while the validity of NET-LS has remained lifelong. Age limit for appearing in JRF-NET is 28 years and for NET-LS, there is no upper age limit has been set.

    Advantages of Qualifying CSIR-NET-JRF:
    Clearing CSIR-NET-JRF is unlike any other examination, especially in Life Sciences. The fellowship gives you a token to entry into the topmost labs of the country and if science is your passion, it is this fellowship which will quench your thirst. Majority of the Gov. & all private university & colleges exempt qualified candidates from any written examination and are able to directly appear into interviews both for lectureship and PhD.

    With the legal announcement of the Supreme Court dated 23rd March, 2015, CSIR-NET-JRF has been made compulsory requirement for appointment as a lecturer in Indian universities, making the examination even more important.
    Moreover, the fellowship of the CSIR has also been revised recently to Rs 25,000/- + HRA (JRF) & Rs 28,000 + HRA (SRF) w.r.t 1st Nov, 2014. This has made the fellowship amount to sum up to more than Rs 17 lakhs for five years of research. There are also norms available for an enhanced promotion of CSIR-NET-JRF qualified candidate working as a lecturer. The recognition and respect one gets from the fellow candidates, interviewers, students, adds flavor to one's success. All the above reasons have fascinated lakhs of students to appear for the examination seriously.

    Fig No. I: Detailed summary of funding schemes to research scholars:

    .png   ResearchScholarshipsIndia.png   (Size: 65.31 KB / Downloads: 54)

    Strategy for Preparation: Idea
    Examination Pattern:
    • There are three sections/parts in CSIR- NET entrance paper Part ‘A’, ‘B’ & ‘C’ each having different pattern of questions thus requiring special strategy for each.
    • Each question in Part ‘A’ & ‘B’ carries 2 marks, while Part ‘C’ consists of questions of 4 marks each. There is a negative marking of 25% for each wrong answer.

    Section A consists of 20 questions out of which 15 have to be answered. Among these 20 questions at least 10 questions are basic mathematical (topics are): Mensuration (2-3 Q), Series completion (2-3 Q), Graphical representation & analysis (3-4 Q), Gen. Aptitude (5 Q). Total marks allotted to this section are 30 Marks (15 X 2).

    Section B consists of 50 questions out of which 35 have to be answered. All questions in this section are based on general Life Sciences. Questions of medium level of difficulty are asked in this section. The topics of utmost importance are as follows: Biochemistry (5-6 Q), Cell Biology (4-5 Q), Molecular Biology (8-10 Q), Genetics (4-5 Q), Embryology     (3-4 Q), Classical Zoology and Botany (5-6 Q), Experiment based questions (3-4 Q), Instrumentation (4-5 Q). Total marks allotted to this section are 70 Marks (35 X 2).

    Section C consists of 75 questions out of which 25 have to be answered. All questions are analytical based on fundamental knowledge and concepts. Strenuous questions are asked in this section. The most important fact about this section is that none of the questions are repeated, but yet there are fixed topics from which the questions are asked on a regular basis. The topics which have been asked quite a number of times include:
    A. Biochemistry (6-8 Q): Protein hierarchy, Hb/ Mb O2 dissociation curve, Inborn errors of metabolism, Enz. Inhibition, Glycogen metabolism, β oxidation, Ketone bodies, Photosynthesis, Plant hormones.
    B. Cell Biology (8-10 Q): Protein translocation in E.R, Intracellular protein trafficking, Nerve impulse translocation, SNARE hypothesis, Cell signaling, Cancer.
    C. Molecular Biology (8-10 Q): Cot-curves, Transposones, Replication, Transcription, Translation, Mutational studies in lac operon, Attenuation, Trp- Operon, Translation, Chaperons.
    D. Model Organisms (3-4 Q): λ-Phage, ABC Model in A. thaliana, Vulva development in C. elegans, Embryonic development in D. melanogaster.
    E. Genetics (4-6 Q): Double C.O. Chromosomal maps, Pedigree analysis, Hardy Weinberg, Maternal inheritance, Non Allelic Interaction.
    F. Instrumentation (5-8 Q): Questions based on a hypothetical experimental design & analysis.
    G. Other Imp. Topics (8-10 Q):  Cladogram & Dandrogram, Lotka Volterra model, Succession,  MHC, ELISA, At-Ab Interactions, Gene sequencing through Conjugation, transduction, Bact. Growth curve analysis.

    The General cut-off for securing a seat of JRF is 55 % marks and for NET is 47 % marks in Gen category while in reserve category it is much lower than this.
    Before a student gets himself prepared for the CSIR entrance examination, he/she should plan according to his/her category so as to clear the cut off. Individual category vise cutoff are provided in the figure.I

    Fig. I: Minimum cut-off percentage for the award of fellowship/ lectureship (Dec, 2015):
    Subject             General       OBC          SC/ST/PH/VH             General            OBC          SC/ST/PH/VH
    Life Science        52.00         46.80                41.60                        46.8                42.12              37.44

    Misconceptions & Myths: Undecided
    The greatest misconception among students is that there is a separate cutoff for the three sections but there is none, instead a student has to score total marks overall. There is yet another common query among students that whether applying for JRF would make them eligible for NET-LS or not (just in case they don't make it to JRF).

    The answer to their query is: Yes, those who have filled the form for JRF will be considered for NET-LS if they are able to cross the cutoff of CSIR-NET-LS but those who have filled the form for only NET-LS are not considered for CSIR or NET-JRF.

    Some students are fascinated by Dr Shyama Prasad Mukherjee (SPMF) fellowship for PhD scholars and as only top 30 Rank holders of CSIR-NET-JRF are eligible for it, so students tend to over attempt questions, ultimately landing nowhere with negative marking.

    To all these students I would like to suggest that it hardly matters in NET-JRF entrance examination which rank one scores because the fellowship for both CSIR-JRF & UGC-JRF is the same. The only thing that matters is that : "whether you are able to make it to the JRF candidate list or not"

    Formula For Success: Idea
    CSIR-NET-JRF exam is about selecting the right questions to be answered while escaping the ones from classical biology or ones which are time consuming or lengthy in nature.
    • Part-A is decorated with time consuming mathematical questions, any miscalculation may fetch you negative marks!, so I would suggest not to spend more than half an hour over this section.
    • Part B consists of simplest questions to be answered and one should finish this section within half an hour.
    • Part C checks one's control over his/her nerves. There are questions which are too hard to be attempt, do not lose your hope & temper, just move to another question because there are only 25 Q to be attempted out of 75 Questions!

      Please do go through each and every question at least superficially so that you can attempt max no. of questions, also make sure that you don't make any unnecessary over attempts.

    If you could score correctly only 50 % in total, even then you will definitely make it to JRF/LS.

    Alternate Approach to Success: Confused
    There are several other competitive examinations such as NET-JRF-UGC, ICMR-JRF, IARI-JRF, CU-SET, HSCRT-JRF, ARS-NET, ASRB, GATE-Xl/Bt, etc in which one could also appear so as to increase their chances of getting selected. Moreover it is also advisable to students to apply for the nineteen different scholarships schemes provided by CSIR as indicated on

    All's Well that Ends Well:   Smile
    At the end I would like to mention that it is hard work that conquers all, never be afraid of your failures. Always remember whether or not you make up to JRF, the preparation will transform you into an able student, with increased knowledge which will be reflected in other entrance examinations, interviews and even in your academics and daily life to make you confident enough.

    • Hasan, S.A., Khilnani, S. and R. Luthra. 2013. Are CSIR-UGC NET qualified junior research fellow going away from science? Current Science, Vol. 104 (4).
    • Gupta, A., Inderpal and S. mallick. 2004. Are bright students coming back to Science?- A Study. Jou. of Scientific & industrial. res., Vol. 63: 248-250.

    Nitin Wahi
    Director, The Genome Coaching Inst., Agra & Mathura.
    UGC- Fellow, PhD Scholar, G.L.A University, Mathura,
    Ω 08923944414.

    .docx   ENTRANCE EXAM PREPARATION TIPS.docx   (Size: 30.64 KB / Downloads: 3)

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    On behalf of Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India, Biotech Consortium India Limited (BCIL) is implementing since 1993-94, a scheme of practical industrial training for M.Sc./M.Tech./B.E./B.Tech. Biotechnology students.

    The objective of BCIL is to provide industry-specific training to Biotech students for skill development and enhancing their job opportunities in biotech industry.

    This programme provides an opportunity to Biotech Industry for training and selecting suitable manpower. The training period is for six months during which a trainee is paid stipend of Rs.10,000/- per month and trainer company is paid a bench fee to cover the expenses for providing training.

    The advertisement for the programme is published in national newspapers once in a year in the month of April-May and online application forms for students and requisition forms for companies are available on website for submission. The final placement for training is done in October-November. 

    1.       Eligibility: B.E./B.Tech/M.Sc/M.Tech/M.V.Sc in Biotechnology, Molecular & Human Genetics, Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, Neuro-Science, Biochemical Engineering & Biotechnology, Bio-process Technology, General/Agricultural/Industrial/Marine/Medical/ Pharmaceutical/Environmental/Plant/Food/Animal Biotechnology from an Indian recognized university with minimum 50% marks or equivalent grade completed in the year 2014 or 2015 are only eligible to apply.  

    2.       The application would be accepted online only. Last date for submission of online application form is May 10, 2015.
    Follow the below steps:

    a)       Go to the link
    b)      Click on “Application form for Students (New User)”
    c)       Create an account by putting a new user id, password and re-writing password of your choice.
    d)      You can view/edit your application form any time in your account by clicking on already registered users before the last date of submitting the application. But the editing should not be done after sending the hardcopy of application and acknowledgement to BCIL.
    3.       Before applying Online, the candidates must possess the following :
    a)       Scanned passport (pp) size photograph in JPEG format (Size upto 25kb)
    b)       Scanned Signature in JPEG format (Size upto 10 kb)
    c)        Demand draft number, date and bank name
    d)       Applicants Bank account details viz:
               i) Name as per bank account records:
               ii) Name of bank:
               iii) Bank Branch Address:
               iv) A/C No.:
               v)  IFSC Code:
    4.       The following documents are to be sent to:

    Mr. Manoj Gupta,
    Manager, Biotech Consortium India Limited (BCIL),
    5th floor,
    Anuvrat Bhavan,
    210, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Marg,
    New Delhi-110002

    by speed post/courier.

    Last date of accepting the hardcopy of the documents is May 15, 2015. Applications received after the last date will not be entertained.

    a)A demand draft of Rs. 500/- in favour of “Biotech Consortium India Limited, New Delhi” towards non-refundable application fee. Please write your application id, name, date of birth and mobile no. on the reverse side of the demand draft.
    b)Hard copy of the system generated acknowledgement and application form submitted online.
    c)Self-attested copy of final mark sheet of the qualifying examination showing the cumulative percentage of marks of all semesters/years or equivalent CGPA. For students appearing in the final examination in 2015, filled and signed certificate on the college/HOD letter head in the format available on the website.
    5.       Online Test:
    a)      Candidates will be shortlisted through an online test. The shortlisted candidates will have to appear for an interview for final selection.
    b)      Online test would be conducted at centers across the country (Please refer Annexure-2) on June 20, 2015 in 2-3 batches.
    c)       Applicants have to select their test centre while filling the online application form. The no. of seats left in the centre of your choice will be displayed, if there is no seat available in the centre of your choice, you can select the other nearest centre.
    d)      Students whose applications are found to be complete and eligible in all respects will be shortlisted for online test.
    e)      List of the candidates eligible for online test will be displayed on the website on May 27, 2015.
    f)       E-Hall tickets with online test date, time and venue will be sent to the candidates within one week before the test date via email.
    g)      In case of clash of online test time with any other exam time, students could request to appear for test in another time slot available. The request for the same should be sent via email by June 10, 2015. Requests received after that will not be considered.
    h)      No request for change of date of online test will be entertained
    i)        No TA/DA will be paid to the students appearing for online test.  
    j)        The structure of the test is given in Annexure 3 on the website.
    k)      For sample questions please visit 
    l)        Syllabus for online test is same as the syllabus of M.Sc General Biotechnology (given on website of Department of Biotechnology (DBT),
    6.       Interview:
    a)      The candidates shortlisted through the online test will be called for interview in different cities. The candidates may be called for interview in the city other than the city selected while filling application form.
    b)      The list of candidates shortlisted for interview would be published on the website on June 30, 2015 with details regarding venue, date and time. Individual intimation for interview would not be sent.
    c)       The interviews will be held during July – August 2015. 
    d)      Candidates appearing for the interview will be paid to and fro travelling expenses equivalent to 2nd class (sleeper) train fare by the shortest route, on production of tickets.
    e)      Candidates who wish to claim travel expenses are requested to bring 2 copies of tickets booked online or taken from the ticket window, to be attached with the claim form.
    f)       In case an outstation candidate appears for interview from a place other than as indicated in his/her original application, the reimbursement of fare would be limited to the place mentioned in application or place from where the candidate actually arrived, whichever is nearer.
    g)      Candidates will have to make their own arrangements for boarding and lodging while appearing for the interview.
    h)      Students appearing for interview will have to bring:
                                                 i)            Copy of dissertation/project work, if any
                                               ii)            Photo identification proof – Voter I-card, Driving licence, Passport, PAN card etc.
                                              iii)            Mark sheets of all semesters.
                                             iv)            Final consolidated marksheet and provisional certificate.
    7.       The tentative time of commencement of training will be September – October.
    8.       All correspondences related to the programme/joining from BCIL to candidate will be done by email. Kindly provide a valid email address in application form. BCIL will not be responsible for delivery failures to the invalid email ids provided by the candidate at the time of filling application form.
    9.       Filling up this form does not guarantee training under BITP. The decision of the selection committee shall be final and binding. Training does not ensure permanent placement.
    10.   Candidates placed for training will have to make their own arrangements for lodging & boarding. The company may/may not provide boarding/lodging facility on chargeable basis or help in finding accommodation.
    11.   Candidates will be required to follow the rules and regulations of the trainer company. If the trainee leaves the training in between or is terminated, stipend would not be paid for the rest of the training period. Non serious candidates based on the feedback of company will be terminated without notice. If a trainee is terminated from a company due to unsatisfactory work or indiscipline or misconduct, the trainee would not be placed in any other company.
    12.   Students who have already undergone training under BITP or are employed will not be eligible.

    Important Dates

    .png   bcil-deadline.png   (Size: 56.16 KB / Downloads: 7)

    Email for queries at:

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    Hello all,

    After my last post about my experiences during interview at IIT-Kanpur, I planned to share my experiences of my interview at IIT-Kharagpur.

    IIT kharagpur was my second successful interview out of 3 interviews, thus would like to share some worthy experiences.

    My Experience:

    I did my Bachelor's degree from west bengal, and was acquainted to bengal, thus IIT-KGP was one of my targets to pursue higher studies. My all India rank was high enough, that I was confident that I would get a call, and it happened as I expected. As I entered the campus, and was enthralled after seeing the green and serene campus of IIT-KGP. The ambience made me forget about the interview. I reached at evening and roamed around the campus, the whole evening. A must visit is the tech market, especially the food stalls, present there, selling local food and beverages. The breeze, the dusk, and the bengal flavor made me nostalgic. So, the first suggestion for the candidates will be, to enjoy the campus and surroundings, along with the food spots, and relax themselves.

    Now comes the part, everyone will be reading for, ie, the interview experience. Honestly speaking, the professors in the panel were very friendly, and as I mentioned in my previous post about IIT-Kanpur, had a good sense of humor. All the candidates were asked to sit in a lecture room, and after sometime, names of victims were called one by one  Tongue . As my name was called, with great enthusiasm, I stood up and went inside in front of the panel. It is very important to be enthusiastic, coz M.Tech is not just a degree, it's an experience, you sought the most.

    As I sat in front of the professors, I was asked the most unexpected question. They asked me to do a SWOT analysis of myself. Many of you, who don't know what SWOT analysis is, it is analysis of your personality through analysis of your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. This is how, they wanted to understand me and my personality. Thus, it is very important to know yourself which is one most important aspect of one's persona. Believe in yourself and tell the truth.

    After the SWOT analysis and some light discussions about personal life along with few jokes and fun filled moments (NB: making your panel laugh or lighten their mood is on you), I was asked to describe my research interest. Here, don't go for some fancy stuff, rather state something more practical and achievable and about which, you have ample knowledge. As I stated my research interest, just like at IIT-Kanpur, I was dragged into the loop. Somehow, I managed to escape the trap, and was able to convince the panel, I was worthy enough for a master's degree. They smiled and asked me to leave. I got an offer from IIT-KGP, but finally joined IIT-Kanpur for my master's.

    Takeaway lessons:
    1. Live the life, and enjoy the ambience. Success and failures come and go, but these experiences will stay forever. Thus explore the campus, enjoy the moment.
    2. Be confident. If you don't know something, don't be nervous or ashamed, just tell the professors, the truth.
    3. Don't be fancy about research topics. Even the professors know, how capable a graduate can be. Be practical.
    4. Know yourself. This will help you in all interviews.
    5. And as I always say, stay calm and do your part. Your life and future is not decided by a single success or a failure. Strive hard to succeed, and work harder to stay at that position.

    Best of luck to all the aspirants.

    PS: Those who scored low or didn't get success and looking for NITs or other options, I'd suggest, drop a year, and reappear for GATE. One decision can change your life.

    Enjoy life in present. One should not be a prisoner of the past, nor should be future phobic.


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    Hey Everyone !
    This is me sharing my experiences about GLA University. I came here in August 2014 and decided to pursue my Master's in Microbiology and Immunology. I came to know about this place through my father. Though it's a good university in this region . I had completed my Bachelor's from Banasthali University .  Cool
    Apart from this I want to mention that , It is the only university I guess which offers dual degree program in M.Sc . It is a very good thing to achieve here !
     College life is really unique that teaches us something special which can be an inspiration for every student. For everyone, college life can be different as everybody has different places to choose for their study . One can achieve something great , while some are not able to achieve up to their expectations . As, Failures are the pillars of success, so we should not forget to try again and again ! Trying on something gives us more confidence and strong determination to achieve something very big. Winning or Loosing are the part of the life , what matter is our strong determination and hardwork ! 
    Coming to GLA proved great for me as I am enjoying here a lot ! I can say I have become more ambitious and capable of taking more responsibilities as before ! A college is the place where a student comes to know about his/her own hidden talent, his/her capability to tackle problems and hostel life teaches us to become more self confident and mature . So, one should have a college  experience in their life to become independent ! In a college we get to know about many things which can turn to be good for us .
    I have many experiences of my college life , but this one is totally different and realistic for me !!! 

    Everybody chooses a better place to pursue his/her further higher studies. I chose this place to be the part of my life . When I came here, I don't have any idea about this place. I gave entrance to get admission in this college. There are entrances for every course in GLA University. GLA University needs no introduction as its name speaks itself ! Ranked No:- 3 in India .  Finally college started and I was excited about it . Excited because , I came here to pursue my PG and PG life is always interesting for everybody !!!
    . Though the environment here is serious about the studies, which is an extremely good thing for a university. Faculty over here in my department is really nice and well educated. Faculty is blessed with friendly and soft hearted  nature which help us to communicate with them easily. I was over joyed with this behavior. I had also studied in Banasthali University and JNU,Jaipur, but over there faculty was not this much friendly. Coming over to hostel life, this was my 7th year in hostel and I had no fear about this. I felt comfortable and was easily adjusted. But I was little much tensed about my rom mate as It was an question mark !  Tongue  Though it was a new place for me but due to the friendly environment in GLA , I felt relaxed and positive . After so many days, I came to know about my room mate who was Manipur ! Far away from here she was . Her name is Okeshwori  and she is cute, helpful and most important she understands me very well , though she know only little bit of Hindi  Rolleyes . I used to communicate with her in English before , but now she speaks good Hindi ! 

    GLA University has many special things about it to be explained. This university has dual environment means serious for studies and enjoyable for other co curricular activities. So, for students,  it's an amazing place to study and learn. GLA University administration always listen to their students no matter what the problem can be ?? I appreciate this facility provided to us . 
    Months passed, and I came across many peoples in hostel and academic campus . Some were interesting and some were having dual nature in their behavior. For the first time, I got some friends who are really open minded and frank to me ! At least they were not having the habit of backstabbing . I was happy with that .Mean while, some of them pretended to be good on my face, but on my back they were just like my enemies.
    But that was usual for me as I faced this earlier also !
    In hostel or away from home, one should be enough mature to handle their problems on their own . One thing I must say, I became more self confident and  more capable to handle my problems after coming to GLA . 
    GLA University has taught me how to become more self confident and independent !!!
    I pay my thanks to some of my friends and faculty members who stood with me throughout my bad and good times. But , few were there who always tried to bring me down , but as I said I was more self confident enough to handle this and I survived !
    This was the first time when I felt that I have became more confident and was enough mature to overcome my problems. This is all about my personal experiences , now I come to my professional experiences in GLA !!!
    At GLA, participating in extra co curricular activities , has been always a fun moment and I enjoyed this . My faculty also praises me for my extra effort . 
    All the faculty over here is really appreciable and down to earth . No matter what they are always ready to help in any condition . My HOD sir , Dr. A.K Bhatia, is an extremely talented person in every field. He always encouraged me to do better. Other faculty such as Dr. Alok Bharadwaj sir, he is really too friendly ! His idea of teaching is very much comfortable . Dr. Vishal Khandelwal sir and Dr. Pradeep Kumar Choudhary sir, are two teachers who have an amazing way to teach ! They both have wide knowledge about their fields. Taking you all to the other teachers like Aditya Saxena Sir, Anuja Mishra Mam, Anjana Mam, Rama Mam , they are also magnificent persons. And finally moving to our new faculty i.e. Dr.Gaurav Pant sir, he is down to earth person and research oriented person . Beside this all, my teachers are really helpful and they always encourage me to move for a better career in my life. Last but not the least, our department has finest research scholars such as Nitin Wahi sir, Ritesh Sir,  who simultaneously help me to be aware about my field on the same. They also suggest me how to do better in research oriented career. 
    That's all about my college life experiences !
    Moving towards to my personal life again ; only some of my friends like Aman, Prashant, Nikita, Kanika, Okeshwori, Divyanshu, Aditi, Shubhi etc are like my pillars !!! They support and encourage me in my bad times and are always with me in my good times to share my happiness. Lets come to hostel wardens, one thinks that wardens are very strict to their students, but in my case, my wardens are really frank to me and always like elder sister to me !! I want to mention their names like- Richa Mam and Anuja Mam ! Such nice peoples they are  Heart They have soft nature and good understanding power to solve my problems. 
    Aman is my bestest buddy and she is really caring to me . I have never imagined a friend like her in my life. Apart form this campus, I have another best friend who is Raj Singh Chauhan and he is the unique kind of man who is enough mature, sensible and decent in this lifestyle and thoughts ! I have learnt many things form him and will continue to get inspired from him as he is totally different guy who always supports me to do better than good  Smile Here, I found three elders sisters who are very much caring to me . Sneha Didi, Sana didi and Mukta Didi , beacuse of you all , I have gained a lot of positive energy in me :-) Thanks for making me to love myself .
    At last , GLA  University has been a nice place for me to learn and grow in my life further ! Peoples here are extremely good and well behaved in their thoughts except some ! 
    Last but not the least, I am nothing without my parents who have been a great source of inspiration to me always ! Thanks to them and more over I feel proud to be their daughter !Special thanks to my father who always supports and encourages me every time, no matter what I am going through ! He is actually a hero for me who has done everything for me to just make me smile ! Love you Papa ..
    GLA University has many- many things good in it which can be learn by an individual to become a better person with good moral values  Big Grin I choose this university for being a better person so that I can make this place proud one day and I am working on it !!! Without the contribution of GLA University, my faculty and friends , I was unable to regain my lost self confident ! I am now more confident only because I came here and some credit goes to my efforts also . Finally , I only want to say that , If you can dream it , You can do it :-) 
    Every college or university is good, it depends on us how we do there and the kind of things we achieve there ! Respect yourself and dream high to achieve more !!!
    GLA University has contributed much to my life , and my life has been changed totally in positive aspects . I will make my best to give this university something more special so that they can feel proud on me one day ! Certainly I'll do that :-) 

    Link for GLA University, Mathura :-

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    Dear sir

    How would you rate the colleges offering undergraduate courses in Biotechnology in Pune? I know IISER would be the best but after that one should opt for University of Pune integrated 5 year course or Deemed university B.Tech course from DY Patil / Bharati Vidyapeeth? Where would be the position of B.Sc from Fergusson / garware colleges?

    sarang satarkar

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    Clinical trials are the clinical studies that involve human volunteers; here termed as subjects or patients that are designed to improve the medical knowledge, determine the efficacy of a new drug in the humans for diseases which has no certified or proven treatment/therapy, or sometimes done just for comparison with another drug for same ailment to determine whichever is more effective with lesser side effects. It also helps determine which dose/concentration of a particular drug would be best for different stages of the same disease. Clinical trials are highly crucial to be conducted before the drug is marketed to make sure the drugs are tested and certified for usage.

    These studies always involve a team of experts from Medical & Pharmaceutical sectors to make sure there is compliance in trials with the protocols. The government of the country where the study is held is also involved to make sure the protocols follow the standards set by that particular government and also to make sure that the practice is ethical and patient safety is of highest importance. This study may either be interventional or observational type. In interventional, the patients or the subjects are given specific medical products as per the designed protocol by medical experts or investigators. This medical product could be drugs, devices, vaccine, etc.

    In the observational studies, the interventions maybe given to a group of the population but it is mainly for the investigator to observe the health consequences or development in that group with respect to their lifestyles.

    A complete clinical trial includes four main stages, collectively known as the Phases of clinical trials. The four clinical phases and drug development in each phase is defined below. However these phases may not always occur in the same chronological order. Sometimes a drug is evaluated in just 2 phases and sometimes the clinical trials may occur in such a fashion that two different phases may overlap each other.

    Phase I: This is the primary stage where the first safety trials on a new drug is done in order to establish the exact dose range that is tolerated by the subjects. The dosage type maybe single or multiple. Usually this trial is conducted on severely ill patients like in cases of cancer, and in case of less ill patients, it involves pharmacokinetic studies. Pharmacokinetic studies are generally considered as phase I study.  Pharmacokinetic study can be easily defined as the study of what the body of living organism does to the drug from the moment it is absorbed by the body, distribution within the body, its metabolism to excretion.

    Phase IIa: This is the first part of the 2nd phase of the clinical trial that involves the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of the drug in a group of selected population. The population here is usually patients with ailments to be treated or to prevent it. This phase concentrated on the dose-response , what type of patients are involved, Objectives may focus on frequency of intervention, dose-response, type of patient, and many other factors that are crucial in determining the safety and efficacy level. This phase may be  referred to as pilot trials.

    Phase IIb: The objectives of this phase is same as that of the phase IIa, and may sometimes be referred to as pivotal trials. The conditions and factors for evaluation of efficacy and safety may also be same as phase IIa, however this phase represents absolutely thorough and careful, uncompromising display of the drug efficacy.

    Phase IIIa: Phase III begins after the drug efficacy has been demonstrated but before the regulatory submission of New Drug. This phase is conducted on the group of population for whom the drug was actually intended to begin with. In IIIa clinical trials a data is generated based on both safety and efficacy but in relatively large numbers of subjects or patients in both controlled and uncontrolled trials. This trial may involve 2 group of patients for comparison of the drug interaction in the body against a placebo. This phase often provides much of the information needed for the labeling of the drug.

    Phase IIIb: This phase is conducted after regulatory submission of dossier or an NDA, but prior to the drugs approval by the regulatory body and marketing of the drug. These trials may add on to earlier studies, sometimes may be the end of the clinical studies, or sometimes be directed towards Phase IV evaluations. This is the period between regulatory submission and approval of the drug for marketing authorization.

    Phase IV: This phase is generally for observational purpose, but can sometimes be interventional too. This phase is conducted in order to provide with additional information about the drug’s efficacy or safety profile. Different age groups, or population from different ethnicity, races, are targeted in this phase. Previously unidentified reactions can be observed in this phase gradually adverse reactions or serious adverse effects are determined along with  related risk factors. This is very important for Phase IV because if a marketed medicine is to be evaluated for unknown indication, then those clinical trials are  considered first as interventional and then continued as Phase II clinical trials. The term post-marketing surveillance is generally used to describe the study period following the marketing of drug. During this the studies conducted are observational or non-experimental.

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    Metagenomics- exploring the microbes in their habitat.

    The earth is comprised of large varieties of microorganisms.  This variety of microorganisms plays various functions for sustaining life on earth. They provide many necessary functions which are important for other lives to exist in earth.  Every process in the biosphere is touched by these microbes owing to their ability to transform the world around them. They play major roles in the chemical cycles of all the key elements of life like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and thus making them biologically accessible for the other microorganisms. So, it can be said that microbes helps in sustaining life on earth.   All plant and animals are closely associated with microbial communities which provide nutrients, metals ions and vitamins to their hosts. Even human body which comprises of approx 3 trillion cells also acts as a host of billions microbes associated with them which help us to lead a healthy life. Nowadays microbes also help human beings in production of drugs, biofuel, biopols and fermenting food.

    Microbes were discovered during the time of late 18th century when microscope was invented. It makes us aware of microorganisms by making it visible to us. By then to today we know many things about microbes by culturing them in laboratories.  Microbes were studied by focusing on a pure culture which consists of only one species. This enable the scientists to study microbes, however it isn’t natural as microbes are grown on artificial media without having ecological contacts. All most, all the information about the microbes is laboratory knowledge gained by growing them in unnatural environment. In the community, microbes compete for nutrients and space. Also there are several functions which cannot be done by a species alone. Culturing microbes in artificial media is a very old process for getting information from microbes. From pure cultures, there is very little knowledge obtained about some microbes which cannot be grown without community.  The science of Metagenomics empowers us to study the microbes in their natural environment i.e. the complex community in which they normally live.

    Defining Metagenomics:

    The word Meta is a Greek word for transcendence and term genomics means the total hereditary contain of an organism. This field of biology helps us to understand the biology as a whole.  It takes a community of microbes from natural environment and focuses on the genes and their role in the community. This provides us with the information that how genes can influence each other activity and serve functions collectively as a whole.  Metagenomics consist of extracting DNAs directly from the environment, these DNA are known as metagenomes. DNAs are extracted from the microbes in their native places. For example all microbes from sea water, soil, and human gut etc.

    Methods in Metagenomics:

    The steps in this process consist of extraction of DNA from samples which are collected from the environment under observation. The samples contain verity of different kinds of organism, the cells of which may be broken by chemical methods such as alkaline condition or by physical methods like sonication.  Then the DNA is isolated from rest of the sample using its chemical and physical properties. Some methods of DNA isolation include density centrifugation, affinity binding and solubility precipitation.  Metagenomic genome is complex since it is mixture of many DNA from a pool of microorganisms making its study more challenging. These DNA can be integrated in to E.coli genome for future study. This creates a library of genomes of microbes which are found in that particular environment. The library contains a large number of clones each containing a random part of DNA, which can be analyzed by sequence methods or function methods i.e. by sequencing the nucleotide sequence of clone DNA or by studying the expression of clones DNA into its protein.

    [Image: metagenomic[1].jpg]

    Sequence driven method comprises of sequencing the clone DNA which was collected from natural environment and then put it for computational analysis using bioinformatics tools. Sequences are compared with the sequences that are already present in the DNA data banks. Then genes are grouped into similar predictable functions and types of the proteins that conduct those functions and coded by the sequences can be assed.

    • In function driven method the DNA is collected from the habitat and is implanted into a surrogate host, instead of its sequencing then the scientists go for studying their functions. For studying the functions firstly it is ensured that the function is absent in the subrogate hosts so, that the resulted function can be interpreted as the function of the Meta DNA.  Genotypic analysis is generally performed after phenotypic analysis. A typical metagenomic analysis consists of several rounds of the procedure to ensure the isolation of the targeted genes from the environment samples and to successfully characterize the function encoded by the gene.

    The information gained from the metagenomic procedure includes information regarding structure, expression, evolution and origin of DNA. These informations can be scientifically applicable for benefiting the society and environment. Many microorganisms have ability to degrade waste material, make new drugs for medicine, and make biodegradable plastics and some of the important food we consume regularly. Isolation of this Meta DNA enables us to optimize those processes and adapt them for use in our society. As a result of ineffective laboratory standard technique the potential of organisms in the nature like microbes is relatively unknown and uncharacterized.  Metagenomic is a revolutionary tool for exploring the diversity on organism from their native habitat samples.  Metagenomic effectively involves characterization of function or naturally occurring samples without laboratory culturing technique.

    Application of metagenomic in human welfare

    Environment sustainability: Metagenomics can give new techniques for monitoring the impact of pollutants on ecosystems and for removing the contaminating agents from environment. Gaining the understanding of how microbial communities cope with pollutants can be use as a scale for measuring the potential of contaminated sites to recover from pollution and increases the chances of bioaugmentation or biostimulation trials to succeed.

    Biochemical products: Microbial communities produce a large variety of biologically active chemical agents that are used in competition and communication. Many of the drugs which are in use today were originally discovered in microbes; recent progress in exploring the rich genetic resource of non-culturable microbes has led to the uncovering of new functional genes, enzymes, and natural products. The application of Metagenomics has allowed the development of commodity and fine chemicals, agrochemicals and pharmaceutical products where the benefit of enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of products is increasingly recognized.
    Agriculture: Plants grow in soil which is inhabited by a variety of microbial communities, with 1 gram of soil containing around 10^9-10^10 microbial cells which comprises of about 1 gigabase of sequence information. The microbial communities which are living in soils are some of the most complex known to science, and remain not understood despite their industrial importance. Microbes perform a wide variety of ecosystem services which are important for plant growth and development, including fixing atmospheric nitrogen into soil, nutrient cycling, disease suppression, and arranging iron and other metals. Functional Metagenomics methods are being applied to explore the interactions between plants and microorganisms through cultivation-independent study of these communities. By allowing insights into the function of previously uncultivated or community members in nutrient cycling and the promotion of plant growth, metagenomic methods can contribute to improved disease detection in crops and livestock. This will also help in the adaptation of enhanced farming practices which improve crop health by harnessing the relationship between microbes and plants.
    Metagenomics can also provide valuable information about the functional ecology of environmental communities. The Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial species found in the defecations of Australian sea lions suggests that nutrient-rich sea lion faeces may be an important nutrient source for coastal ecosystems. This is because the bacteria that are exposed simultaneously with the defecations are adept at breaking down the nutrients present in the faeces into a biologically accessible form that can be taken up into the food chain.

    Information from metagenomic libraries has the ability to enrich the development of industries and environmental sustainability. This information can be applied to the human world, in an effort of creating a healthy society that lives with a balance with the environment. DNA sequencing can also be applied more appropriately to identify species present in a body of water, debris filtered from the air, or sample of dirt. This can establish the total range of invasive species and endangered species, and track seasonal populations.  Metagenomics is a new technique of molecular biology that is full of promise and uncertainty. It gives us a window to the world which was unseen ever before. It is uncertain that what will be found but, it will surely help us in understanding the relation between different organism in their natural conditions, and promising us to provide more complete understanding of global cycles that keeps the biosphere bound, discoveries of new anti microbial therapies and also over coming environmental challenges. Metagenomics is just at its initial stages and continuously growing. Advances in Metagenomics can lead us to know the microbial community more appropriately and use them for human welfare and environmental sustainability.

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