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Biotechnology Forums -

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    What degree Focuses?

    It covers the broader spectrum of science and after successfully having this course you would be capable of developing your interests in the field of biotechnology.

    We offer in-depth study in the following area:
    1. Bioinformatics
    2. Industrial biotechnology
    3. Medical biotechnology
    4. Molecular biology
    5. Forensic biotechnology
    6. Agricultural biotechnology

    For whom is this course?

    This course is for every science graduate provide that he holds good exposure along with grades in the following areas of science like, zoology, , biochemistry, botany microbiology, agriculture, chemistry or veterinary sciences.Besides, it is of deem necessary to have basic knowledge of biotechnology.

    Our university offers you a number of other opportunities while learning the biotechnology. The prime focus during the course of study , you would be having research exposure under senior’s guideline. There are also chances of individual researches of any of the projects you propose in future.

    What benefit will you have?

    You will be having plenty of benefits while studying the biotechnology in Australia. This university always offers research projects for competent students. Besides, if you are foreigner and intending to study in the university, you will be provided accomodation in the hostel of the university. If your visa policy allows you for part time work, university will grant you the permission for part time jobs.

    What are programs?

    1. Graduate Diploma of Science in (Biotechnology)
    2. Master of Science (Biotechnology)(Leadership Stream)
    What is professional growth ?
    Biotechnology is the only field which is speedily growing across the globe. It has bright career and professional chances.

    Main bio technologists professional area are listed below :
    1. Quality assurance officers
    2. Medical laboratory scientists
    3. Scientific officers
    4. Occupational health and safety officers
    5. Research and development scientists
    6. Food technologists
    1. Agribusinesses
    2. Biotechnology businesses
    3. Wine industry and breweries
    4. Forensic science laboratories
    5. Veterinary science

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  • 01/05/14--23:45: University of Queensland
  • Why you should study Bachelors in Biotechnology?
    Biotechnology deals with all living organisms scientifically. Its engineering principles are applied with regard to improving the value of society. The areas are covered by this science are brewing, wastewater management and cheese production with the help of drug designing and gene therapy.

    It examines plants, microorganisms, and all living organisms in the context of the understanding, discovering , developing . and improving activities or products. This discipline of science combines aspects of many areas like microbiology, molecular genetics, physics, engineering, chemistry, mathematics, and immunology.

    Specialisations/ Majors
    1. Bioprocess Technology
    2. Nanotechnology
    3. Nanotechnology and Innovation Management
    4. Plant Biotechnology
    5. Plant Biotechnology and Innovation Management
    6. Bioprocess Technology and Innovation Management
    7. Chemical Biotechnology
    8. Chemical Biotechnology and Innovation Management
    9. Microbial Biotechnology
    10. Microbial Biotechnology and Innovation Management
    11. Molecular Biotechnology
    12. Bioinformatics
    13. Bioinformatics and Innovation Management
    14. Molecular Biotechnology and Innovation Management
    15. Drug Design & Development & Innovation Management
    16. Drug Design and Development

    Dual degree chances?

    Bachelors of Biotechnology/ Engineering
    University offers modified program of honours in year 4 on the basis of grade points taken by the students.
    Opportunity of progess?
    Graduates will be having the opportunity to flourish in the following program:
    • Master of Business
    What are the entry requisites for Australian students?
    QTAC Code(s)
    731101 - B Biotechnology
    OP/Rank 2013*
    OP or Rank for entry in this program might change for 2014 admissions.

    Other Prerequisites
    Queensland Year 12 or same standard English, Mathematics B plus one of Chemistry or Physics.
    How to apply
    Applications can be submitted directly to Queensland Tertiary Admission Centre.

    Prospective annual fee for 2014: AUD$ 8676
    Besides, fee may vary according the chosen subjects by the candidates.

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    MicroRNA as Biomarkers and Diagnostics Conference

    Organisers: Cambridge Healthtech Institute

    Dates: March 17th-18th 2014

    Location: Omni Parker House, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

    The website gives all the necessary information on conference agenda, dates, registration, fees, hotel, exhibitions and other important facts.

    Purpose of the conference
    Researchers will gather on St. Patrick’s Day in Boston Massachusetts for the 10th Annual MicroRNA as Biomarkers and Diagnostics Conference organised by Cambridge Healthtech Institute. The conference will focus on recent research showing the potential of microRNAs as “non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of disease, monitoring of treatment, and patient stratification, with exosome-derived microRNAs of particular interest”. The conference “will cover the latest developments in the use of microRNA in the early detection of disease for more effective treatment, monitoring tumour growth and disease progression, issues associated with microRNA measurement, and the potential for personalized medicine based on microRNA profile.” Delegates will have the opportunity to hear, among others, the following invited speakers:

    Invited speakers

    Robert J. Lee, Ph.D., Professor, Pharmaceutics, OSU College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University (Keynote speaker)
    Pavan Kumar, Senior Scientist, Biomarkers and Personalized Medicine, Eisai
    Omar Laterza, Director, Clinical Development Laboratory, Merck
    Rounak Nassirpour, Principal Scientist, Drug Safety R&D, Pfizer
    James G. Falls, Manager, Discovery and Molecular Toxicology, GlaxoSmithKline

    • microRNA Biomarkers in Drug Development
    • microRNA Biomarkers as Cancer Diagnostics
    • microRNA as Disease Biomarkers

    Courses (separate registration required)

    Pre-conference course: Long Non-Coding RNAs as Biomarkers , March 17, 2014
    Dinner course: Exosomal microRNAs as Non-Invasive Biomarkers, March 17, 2014

    Important dates

    Advance Registration Deadline by February 7, 2014
    Registrations after and on-site after February 7, 2014
    Poster abstracts due by February 14, 2014

    Sponsors of the conference can avail of the following advantages:
    • Podium Presentations
    • Invitation-Only VIP Dinner/Hospitality Suite
    • Focus Groups
    • User Group Meeting/Custom Event
    • Exhibit
    • Additional branding and promotional opportunities

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    Competitive applicants with outstanding academic performance shall be academic staff from a leading university, scientists and researchers from a renowned institute and company. Research excellence and potential for future productivity are essential. Additional criteria include leadership and communication skills.

    In Science or Engineering: Applicants shall apply for National Recruitment Program of Global Youth Experts (the National Youth 1000-Talent Program) through TU. Successful candidates will be deemed as the appointee.
    In Other Academic Fields: Applicants will be selected according to their qualifications, academic performance, innovation capability, and leadership.


    Responsibilities include establishing a vigorous research program, teaching undergraduate and graduate students, and providing professional/institutional services.

    Compensation and Benefits

    TU offers an attractive remuneration package. Salary will be commensurate with candidates’ qualifications, academic performance and experience. In addition, TU start-up package provides research grant, lab/office space and research–team support.

    In Science or Engineering:
    • An annual pre-tax salary ranging from 400K to 600K RMB will be offered to appointee.
    • An annual pre-tax salary ranging from 350K to 400K RMB will be offered to the candidates who are shortlisted for interview but not selected in the National Youth 1000-Talent Program.
    In Other Academic Fields: Salary is offered by referring to that of candidates in Science or Engineering.

    Application Procedure

    Please submit electronically a complete application package consisting of the following documents to via the Apply button below. The application deadline is 15th March 2014.
    1. Application form
    2. Detailed curriculum vitae
    3. Publications listing and five full-text representative publications
    As for the detailed application procedure and application form, please download from
    Introduction about Schools

    Tianjin University - School of Life Sciences
    The School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, sets an ambitious goal to rank top among international peers. With this international faculty recruitment, we invite talents from the world to build a competitive team. We expect scientists with excellence in modern biology and medicine for research and teaching. Appointments will be made at the Instructor, Associate or Full Professor level.

    Oriented by basic research serving main requirements of the national public health, the Department of Virology and Immunology mainly focuses on basic research of virology and immunology against various outbreaks and emerging infectious diseases, the theoretic base on clinical treatment and prevention, development of therapeutic drugs and vaccines.

    Main research focuses including:
    1. Fundamental research in virology and molecular mechanism of acute or chronic viral infectious diseases;
    2. Understanding of mechanism of immune response to viral infection and the regulation for virus replication caused by antiviral host molecular;
    3. Cross-disciplines study of virology and immunology, to provide new strategies and foundation for novel vaccine development.
    The Department of Structural Biology expects candidates who have a strong experience in structural biology, with a focus on infectious diseases and drug development. The candidate's prior work should have a high impact in his/her field. A particular emphasis of the position lies on “important virus pathogens, virus-host interaction, and drug development.”

    Please refer to for more details.
    Tianjin University - School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
    The School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology at Tianjin University is well equipped with advanced research facilities, and conduct high-level research projects in the areas of medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical analysis, natural medicinal products, pharmaceutics and molecular biochemistry.

    The school is organized into six departments: medicinal chemistry, natural products & traditional Chinese medicine, molecular & cellular pharmacology, pharmaceutical analysis, pharmaceutical formulation, and computer-aided drug design & bioinformatics.

    A Bachelor's Degree of Science is offered in pharmaceutical sciences, as well as Master's Degrees of Science in medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical analysis, pharmacognosy, pharmaceutical formulation, microbiological & biochemical pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and pharmaceutical regulation & administration. There are several PhD programs in applied chemistry and in pharmaceutical regulatory sciences. Postdoctoral fellowships are available in all those areas.
    Please refer to for more details.

    Brief Introduction of Tianjin:
    Tianjin, where TU is located in, is a metropolis in northern China. It is governed as one of the four direct- administrated municipalities of the People's Republic of China. Tianjin borders Beijing Municipality and Hebei Province, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf and portion of the Yellow Sea.

    Tianjin remains one of the best cities in public security in China. According to the comprehensive evaluation results of Chinese domestic regional social development level surveyed by National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), the public security composite index of Tianjin has ranked in the first group among provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China.

    In the future, Tianjin will be an international port and sustainable city with a prosperous economy, civilized society, high-level education and scientific development, complete infrastructure and beautiful environment, functioning as the economic center of the North of China in accordance to national strategic deployment.

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    How does the Regulation of Ubiquitin/ubiquitin-like Pathways Determine Cellular Responses to Reactive Oxygen Species?
    Reference Code: CB108

    Name of the supervisors
    Professor B Morgan, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences (ICAMB)
    Dr J Quinn, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences (ICAMB)

    This studentship is sponsored by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) as part of the Doctoral Training Partnership (DTP).

    Duration of the award
    Four years (MRes Biosciences followed by a three-year PhD).

    Project description
    Oxidative stress-induced cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, certain neurodegenerative diseases and shortened lifespan. However, ROS are also used by the immune system to defend against disease-causing organisms and play important roles as signalling molecules. Thus, to understand how cells function in ageing and disease it is important to explore the mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to ROS. Recently we and others, using yeast as a model, discovered that conserved antioxidants, previously thought to mainly act in restoring redox homeostasis, play key roles in sensing and signalling the presence of ROS [1,2]. Furthermore, ubiquitin (Ub)/ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifications of proteins regulate many fundamental biological processes and, excitingly, we recently demonstrated that the specific sensitivity of a conserved ubiquitin pathway enzyme, Cdc34, to oxidation coordinates cell cycle delay to prevent oxidative stress-induced damage [3].

    Thus, the project aim is to build on these exciting data, using yeast as a model eukaryote, to determine the regulation and roles of conserved Ub/Ubl protein modifications in responses to ROS. Broadly applicable experience will be obtained of genetics, biochemical, cell biology, microscopy, molecular biology techniques, and also techniques to investigate protein modification.

    [1] Day AM et al. (2012) Inactivation of a peroxiredoxin by hydrogen peroxide is critical for thioredoxin-mediated repair of oxidized proteins and cell survival. Mol. Cell 45, 398-408.

    [2] Veal EA et al. (2007) Hydrogen peroxide sensing and signaling. Mol. Cell 26, 1-14.

    [3] Doris KS et al. (2012) Oxidative stress responses involves oxidation of a conserved ubiquitin pathway enzyme. Mol. Cell. Biol. 32, 4472-4481.

    Value of the award and eligibility

    Depending on how you meet the BBSRC’s eligibility criteria, you may be entitled to a full or a partial award. A full award covers tuition fees at the UK/EU rate and an annual stipend of £13,726 (2013/14). A partial award covers fees at the UK/EU rate only.

    Person specification
    Candidates should have or expect to achieve a first-class or upper-second-class Honours degree in a relevant science subject.

    How to apply
    You must apply through the University’s online postgraduate application form selecting 'Master of Research/Doctor of Philosophy (Medical Sciences) – Cell and Molecular Biosciences’ as the programme of study. Please insert the studentship/partnership reference number CB108. Only mandatory fields need to be completed (no personal statement required) but you must attach a copy of your CV and a covering letter, quoting the title of the studentship and reference number CB108.

    Closing date for applications
    The post will remain open until a suitable applicant is appointed. Early application is advised.

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    • #1. Novo Nordisk
    2013 Market Cap: $85.335 billion (7/2: 535.0 million shares * price DKK 911.50)1,10
    2012 Market Cap: $62.809 billion (7/2: 418.0 million shares * price DKK 859.00)1,10
    % Change: 35.9%
    Position on 2012 List: #1
    • #2. Amgen
    2013 Market Cap: $78.695 billion (4/24: 749,976,556 shares * price $104.93)
    2012 Market Cap: $55.054 billion (4/26: 777,707,877 shares * price $70.79)
    % Change: 42.9%
    Position on 2012 List: #2
    • #3. Gilead Sciences
    2013 Market Cap: $78.373 billion (4/26: 1,525,355,825 shares * price $51.38)
    2012 Market Cap: $19.751 billion (4/27: 757,321,824 shares * price $26.08)
    % Change: 296.8%
    Position on 2012 List: #3
    • #4. Celgene
    2013 Market Cap: $52.557 billion (4/23: 417,122,477 shares * price $126.00)
    2012 Market Cap: $34.319 billion (4/25: 440,497,817 shares * price $77.91)
    % Change: 53.1%
    Position on 2012 List: #7

    • #5. Biogen Idec
    2013 Market Cap: $47.157 billion (4/18: 237,374,815 shares * price $198.66)
    2012 Market Cap: $31.582 billion (5/1: 239,562,899 shares * price $131.83)
    % Change: 49.3%
    Position on 2012 List: #4
    • #6. Teva Pharmaceutical Industries
    2013 Market Cap: $33.768 billion (3/31: About 851 million shares * price $39.68 on 3/28)4,9
    2012 Market Cap: $39.292 billion (3/31: About 872 million shares * price $45.06 on 3/30)4,9
    % Change: -14.1%
    Position on 2012 List: #5
    • #7. Merck KGaA
    2013 Market Cap: $33.364 billion (3/31: 217,388,939 shares * price €117.70 on 3/29)4
    2012 Market Cap: $22.319 billion (3/31: 217,388,939 shares * price €78.72 on 3/30)4
    % Change: 49.5%
    Position on 2012 List: #8
    • #8. CSL
    2013 Market Cap: $27.440 billion (6/30: A$30.042 billion) (dd)1,8
    2012 Market Cap: $18.359 billion (6/30: A$20.099 billion) (dd)1,8
    % Change: 49.5%
    Position on 2012 List: #9
    • #9. Regeneron
    2013 Market Cap: $20.269 billion (4/17: 95,122,401 shares * price $213.08)7
    2012 Market Cap: $11.894 billion (4/11: 97,966,145 shares * price $121.41)7
    % Change: 70.4%
    Position on 2012 List: #12
    • #10. Alexion
    2013 Market Cap: $17.893 billion (4/23: 195,146,634 shares * price $91.69)
    2012 Market Cap: $17.152 billion (4/20: 186,924,017 shares * price $91.76)
    % Change: 4.3%
    Position on 2012 List: #10
    • #11. Shire
    2013 Market Cap: $17.252 billion (4/29: 562,826,237 shares * price £20.17)
    2012 Market Cap: $17.205 billion (4/27: 562,532,330 shares * price £20.13 on 4/26)
    % Change: 0.3%
    Position on 2012 List: Not on list
    • #12. Vertex Pharmaceuticals
    2013 Market Cap: $17.495 billion (4/26: 221,400,864 shares * price $79.02)
    2012 Market Cap: $8.151 billion (4/27: 211,061,148 shares * price $38.62)
    % Change: 114.6%
    Position on 2012 List: #11
    • #13. UCB
    2013 Market Cap: $11.650 billion (3/31: 179.3 million shares * price €49.80 on 3/29)1,6
    2012 Market Cap: $7.449 billion (3/31: 176.4 million shares * price €32.35 on 3/30)1,6
    % Change: 56.4%
    Position on 2012 List: #14
    • #14. BioMarin Pharmaceutical
    2013 Market Cap: $9.097 billion (4/19: 139,010,175 shares * price $65.44)
    2012 Market Cap: $3.788 billion (4/13: 115,700,983 shares * price $32.74)
    % Change: 140.2%
    Position on 2012 List: #16
    • #15. Elan
    2013 Market Cap: $7.041 billion (3/31: about 596.7 million shares * price $11.80 on 3/28)4,5
    2012 Market Cap: $8.868 billion (3/31: about 590.8 million shares * price $15.01 on 3/30)4,5
    % Change: -20.6%
    Position on 2012 List: #15
    • #16. Actelion
    2013 Market Cap: $6.885 billion (3/31: 126.7 million shares * price CHF 51.55)1,3
    2012 Market Cap: $4.548 billion (3/31: 130.7 million shares * price CHF 33.00)1,3
    % Change: 51.4%
    Position on 2012 List: #20
    • #17. Onyx Pharmaceuticals
    2013 Market Cap: $6.580 billion (5/3: 72,738,263 shares * price $90.46)
    2012 Market Cap: $3.010 billion (4/27: 64,369,185 shares * price $46.76)
    % Change: 118.6%
    Position on 2012 List: #19

    • #18. Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories
    2013 Market Cap: $5.014 billion (3/31: 169,836,475 shares * price Rs. 1766.50 on 3/29)1,2
    2012 Market Cap: $5.001 billion (3/31: 169,560,346 shares * price Rs. 1764.75 on 3/30)1,2
    % Change: 0.3%
    Position on 2012 List: #17
    • #19. Seattle Genetics
    2013 Market Cap: $4.390 billion (5/2: 121,265,608 shares * price $36.20)
    2012 Market Cap: $2.316 billion (5/2: 117,051,559 shares * price $19.79)
    % Change: 89.6%
    Position on 2012 List: #25
    • #20. Alkermes
    2013 Market Cap: $4.011 billion (5/8: 134,380,999 shares * price $29.85)
    2012 Market Cap: $2.356 billion (5/11: 130,241,192 shares * price $18.09)
    % Change: 70.2%
    Position on 2012 List: Not ranked
    • #21. Ariad Pharmaceuticals
    2013 Market Cap: $3.300 billion (4/30: 184,690,546 shares * price $17.87)
    2012 Market Cap: $2.701 billion (4/30: 165,728,859 shares * price $16.30)
    % Change: 22.2%
    Position on 2012 List: #24

    • #22. Cubist Pharmaceuticals
    2013 Market Cap: $3.059 billion (4/22: 65,206,393 shares * price $46.91)
    2012 Market Cap: $2.668 billion (4/19: 63,337,315 shares * price $42.13)
    % Change: 14.7%
    Position on 2012 List: Not ranked
    • #23. United Therapeutics
    2013 Market Cap: $2.966 billion (4/18: 49,707,574 shares * price $59.67)
    2012 Market Cap: $2.260 billion (4/20: 53,685,360 shares * price $42.09)
    % Change: 31.2%
    Position on 2012 List: Not ranked
    • #24. Ipsen Group
    2013 Market Cap: $2.889 billion (3/1: 84,100,253 shares * price €26.24)1
    2012 Market Cap: $2.230 billion (3/1: 84,226,573 shares * price €20.26)1
    % Change: 29.6%
    Position on 2012 List: Not ranked
    • #25. Isis Pharmaceuticals
    2013 Market Cap: $2.324 billion (5/2: 103,780,421 shares * price $22.39)
    2012 Market Cap: $803.473 million (5/3: 100,183,683 shares * price $8.02)
    % Change: 189.2%
    Position on 2012 List: Not ranked

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    Traditional medicine of Chinese hold a big share of Pharmaceutical market in the entire China. It is said that annually $ 41 billion are earned from this business by the pharmaceutical companies. Recently, Chinese and US based scientists have revealed that the material used in these medicines does have scientific importance and considered to be untapped source for all kinds of ailments. Chinese deputy health minister quoted as saying that $ 1 billion had been used last year for investigating the drugs with the help of biotechnology.

    It is the reason that scientists from China and US have collaboratively agreed to improve the quality of the drugs with the use of modern technology. Hong Kong based biotech technologists hold the opinion that researches are under way and if the products are improved , the sale of Chinese traditional medicines would be boombing in the market. On the other hand, Yung H Wong the famous director of life sciences division at the Biotechnology Research Institute in Hong Kong, categorically says that biotechnology is the only science that has capacity to unravel this perplexity.

    The US based researchers have also said that the traditional medicine from China are treasures for us. Besides, all the biotech research institutes have launched the research initiative for developing herbal medicines of China as per international standards.

    The Hong Kong Institute of Biotechnology was one of those first institutions which took the initiative. Presently, most of the herbal medicines of China are not allowed to be sold in Europe as European Union has embarked sanctions over the local pharmaceutical companies of China. EU holds the view that the products of China does not meet with international medicine standards and can not be accepted.

    It was the reason that Hong Kong government owned another science park with approximate area of 10000 square meters for new biotechnological labs.

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    The beginning of January is the application time for all the summer Internship programs throughout the country. CCMB (Centre For Cellular And Molecular Biology) has officially given the Notification for the Summer Internship Program for the year 2014 .

    CCMB Summer Program 2014

    Eligibility Qualifications :

    The Training program is open to students from all branches of science and to every indian Universities and Research Institutes.

    Eligibility for : Students who are admitted in a Master Program (M.Sc) in the year 2013 ,i.e who will complete their 1st year of M.Sc

    Eligibility for B.Tech Or BE : Students who are admitted in the year 2011, i.e Students who are in 6th Semester (3rd Year Of Engg)

    Eligibility for Integrated B.Tech - : Students who are admitted in the year 2010.

    M.Tech Students are NOT ELIGIBLE

    Computer Science students with flair for Biology may also apply.

    The Program is mainly intended to give students a real time exposure to research environment .
    It's NOT a Conventional classroom based Training Program. Here the selected students will be assigned to a CCMB Staff Scientist who will supervise them during the Stay.

    Each Student is expected to execute a small project and will need to submit a "Project Report" & an Oral Presentation of the work done.

    As the allotments are mainly based on Availability of working places in Different labs , THEREFORE students ,Who are ready to work in any lab in CCMB , if selected ,irrespective of his/her stated research interest


    The Hard Copy of the filled application must reach CCMB by first Monday of feb (3/2/2014).

    The names of the selected students will be available in the CCMB home page during second week of April.

    Important Dates :

    Last Date for receipt of Application : 03-02-2014.
    Selected Candidates LIST on CCMB homepage :10-15 April 2014

    There is No FEE for the training program ; CCMB WILL NOT Provide any financial support for boarding / lodging.


    Hello friends .. It is the time to apply for the summer internship at prestigious institute CCMB( Hyderabad ) .. The complete Details regarding that are GIven in the LINK Provided

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    Scientists in the University of Washington have used nanoparticle technology to immunise mice with what they term ‘just-in-time’ vaccines in a process that could revolutionise distribution and accessibility of vaccines if successfully extended to humans in the future. Current technologies rely on making batches of vaccines centrally and then distributing them to centres where they need to be used, with refrigeration required at all steps. The University of Washington researchers used rudimentary equipment and a single-pot process to produce their vaccine. If this could be extended to humans, it raises the possibility of making vaccines at the site at which they are needed. This would be especially advantageous in the developing world, allowing doctors and scientists locally to act to produce the necessary vaccines cheaply and easily at the first signs of an epidemic.

    The University of Washington study, published this week in the journal Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, used a fusion protein created between ovalbumin, which is often used as a model antigen in animal studies, and a calcium phosphate binding domain. This effectively created a mineralised biocompatible adjuvant in a single step. When administered to mice, this nanoparticle induced the production of an ovalbumin-specific antibody response and class-switch recombination. Importantly, when the mice were subsequently challenged with an influenza virus containing an ovalbumin-derived peptide, the mice produced substantially higher levels of ovalbumin-specific CD8 T cells- protective killer cells of the immune system- and a cytokine called interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) which is toxic to invading pathogens, compared to mice which received the protein in the absence of the nanoparticle. A robust immune response was observed 8 months after vaccination. The mechanism of action of the nanoparticle appears to reside in its ability to ferry antigen to the secondary lymph nodes, where immune reactions can be mounted. There they are detected by specialised immune cells called dendritic cells, which in turn can then present antigen to the immune killer cells such as CD8 T cells.

    The strength of this technology lies in its simplicity, with production possible using rudimentary equipment, and lack of reliance on transport and refrigeration of vaccines. Production costs would be much lower and production could be tailored to match the vaccines to the relevant specific infectious agents at local level. Additionally, there is the possibility of administering vaccine via alternative methods to injection, such as a disposable patch. There is a long road ahead for this technology in terms of human testing but one day it may have a positive impact on vaccination programmes worldwide.


    Zhou, W., Moguche, A.O., Chiu, D., Murali-Krishna, K. and Baneyx, F., 2013. Just-in-time vaccines: Biomineralized calcium phosphate core-immunogen shell nanoparticles induce long-lasting CD8 T cell responses in mice. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 2013; DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2013.11.007

    University of Washington. "On-demand vaccines possible with engineered nanoparticles." [/align], 7 Jan. 2014. [Accessed 8 Jan. 2014]

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    The findings of a new study from the University of Eastern Finland may suggest that including sources of vitamin E in the diet, such as vegetable oils including palm oil, sunflower, corn, soybean and olive oil or using vitamin E supplements, could confer an advantage in avoiding memory disorders in later life. The study, published in Experimental Gerontology, found that elevated serum levels of various vitamin E forms was associated with decreased risk of development of cognitive impairment. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols and is an important anti-oxidant. To date one form, α-tocopherol , which is found in many vitamin E supplements, has been focused on in studies of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However the Finnish study suggests that other forms of vitamin E, including γ-tocopherol, β-tocotrienol and total tocotrienols, are associated with the observed protective effect.

    The study focused on a sample of 140 Finnish people over the age of 65 who had no memory impairment at the beginning of the 8-year study. The study population was drawn from participants in the more extensive Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia (CAIDE) study, which examines links between cardiovascular disease and memory impairment. For the purposes of the study, cognitive impairment was defined as development of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's dementia. Lower risk of cognitive impairment was observed in subjects with higher absolute serum levels of γ-tocopherol, β-tocotrienol, and total tocotrienols. The study highlights the importance of considering all forms of vitamin E when considering vitamin E status and suggests a further benefit of including vitamin E in the diet.


    MANGIALASCHE, F., SOLOMON, A., KÅREHOLT, I., HOOSHMAND, B., CECCHETTI, R., FRATIGLIONI, L., SOININEN, H., LAATIKAINEN, T., MECOCCI, P. and KIVIPELTO, M., 2013. Serum levels of vitamin E forms and risk of cognitive impairment in a Finnish cohort of older adults. Experimental Gerontology, 48 (12): 1428 DOI: 10.1016/j.exger.2013.09.006

    University of Eastern Finland. "Several forms of vitamin E protect against memory disorders, study says." ScienceDaily, 7 Jan. 2014. [Accessed 8 Jan. 2014].

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    Hi everyone! I am including our official casting call below, if this is you or someone you know... please contact me asap.



    Daredevil Brainiacs for a fun TV show!

    Do you love science experiments? Do you have a PhD or working towards one? Do you put scientific principles to the test by using yourself as a guinea pig? Are you willing to do anything in the name of science? We are looking for an eccentric, qualified scientist to be on this wacky and fun television series.

    If so, then we want to hear from you! Please send us your photo, contact info and story to today!

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    Hi All,

    I have done my graduation in computer science two years back,I wish to study my Post graduation in Bioinformatics as I am well interested in this course moreover I did my 12th in Bio-Science.I look forward to become a Bioinformatics Research Scientist.Please request you to provide the scope of this course in India and abroad

    Thank you.

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    The analysis of polyacrylamide gels is currently carried out manually or automatically. In the automatic method, there are limitations related to the acceptable degree of distortion of lane and band continuity. The available software cannot deal satisfactorily with this type of situations. Therefore, the paper presents an original image analysis method devoid of the aforementioned drawbacks.

    more to read at:

    It is possible to carry out this method of DNA polymorphism analysis on distorted images of polyacrylamide gels. The method is fully automatic and does not require any operator intervention. Compared with other methods, it produces the best results and the resulting image is easy to interpret. The presented method of measurement is used in the practical analysis of polyacrylamide gels in the Department of Genetics at the University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland.

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    Research published in last week's Nature Communications suggests that the microRNA miR-181a may be a useful prognostic marker for predicting response to therapy of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The study, from research groups in Case Western Reserve University and Mount Sinai Medical Centre, both in the USA, and the Mario Negri Institute of Pharmaceutical Research in Milan, examined expression of miR-181a in 80 human EOC samples. They also used both in vitro and preclinical in vivo ovarian mouse models to elucidate function and pathways of miR-181a. According to Analisa DiFeo of Case Comprehensive Cancer Center and lead investigator on the study, their findings showed that “miR-181a was one of the top expressing microRNAs in tumours from patients who recurred within the first six months after treatment" and that there were “higher levels in recurrent tumours compared to primary tumours" in their patient population.

    MicroRNAs such as miR-181a are short, single stranded RNA molecules which help control expression of up to 60% of all protein encoding genes. In the current study, in vivo and in vitro studies indicated that the target for miR-181a was the Smad7 gene. SMAD7 protein is an inhibitor of the TGF-β signalling pathway, a potent metastases inducer. Inhibition of SMAD7 by miR-181a would therefore remove the brake on TGF-β and encourage metastases.

    However, the story of miR-181a in cancer is not straightforward, and it appears to have more than one target protein, suggesting caution should be applied in any consideration of miR-181a in EOC therapy. MiR-181a has been associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) and enhances the chemoresistance and resistance to radiation of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma. In contrast, in breast cancer decreased serum miR-181a has been proposed as a potential biomarker and miR-181a has been shown, for example, to enhance drug sensitivity in mitoxantone-resistant breast cancer cells. In this case, the target for miR-181a is the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). On the other hand, the target in CRC was expression of the tumour suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) while in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells it targeted the apoptosis inhibitor PRKCD.

    Given the number of targets for miR-181a that have been identified in various cancer cells and the differing effects of the microRNA in breast cancer as opposed to ovarian, cervical and colorectal cancer, a lot of work lies ahead in any potential therapeutic use of miR-181a. This is particularly relevant, for example, for women with hereditary breast–ovarian cancer syndromes. However, the study in Nature Communications does suggest a prognostic value for miR-181a in predicting response to therapy and recurrence for EOC.


    Press release: [Accessed 8 January 2014]

    Guo, L., & Zhang, Q., 2012, 'Decreased serum miR-181a is a potential new tool for breast cancer screening', International Journal Of Molecular Medicine, 30, 3, pp. 680-686,

    Chen, Y., Ke, G., Han, D., Liang, S., Yang, G., & Wu, X., 2014, 'MicroRNA-181a enhances the chemoresistance of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma to cisplatin by targeting PRKCD', Experimental Cell Research, 320, 1, pp. 12-20,

    [b]Parikh, A., Lee, C., Joseph, P., Marchini, S., Baccarini, A., Kolev, V., Romualdi, C., Fruscio, R., Shah, H., Wang, F., Mullokandov, G., Fishman, D., D'Incalci, M., Rahaman, J., Kalir, T., Redline, R., Brown, B, Narla, G., & Difeo, A., 2014, 'microRNA-181a has a critical role in ovarian cancer progression through the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition', Nature Communications, 5, p. 2977

    Nishimura, J., Handa, R., Yamamoto, H., Tanaka, F., Shibata, K., Mimori, K., Takemasa, I., Mizushima, T., Ikeda, M., Sekimoto, M., Ishii, H., Doki, Y., & Mori, M., 2012, 'microRNA-181a is associated with poor prognosis of colorectal cancer', Oncology Reports, 28, 6, pp. 2221-2226

    Ke, G., Liang, L., Yang, J., Huang, X., Han, D., Huang, S., Zhao, Y., Zha, R., He, X., & Wu, X., 2013, 'MiR-181a confers resistance of cervical cancer to radiation therapy through targeting the pro-apoptotic PRKCD gene', Oncogene, 32, 25, pp. 3019-3027

    Jiao, X., Zhao, L., Ma, M., Bai, X., He, M., Yan, Y., Wang, Y., Chen, Q., Zhao, X., Zhou, M., Cui, Z., Zheng, Z., Wang, E., & Wei, M., 2013, 'MiR-181a enhances drug sensitivity in mitoxantone-resistant breast cancer cells by targeting breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2)', Breast Cancer Research And Treatment, 139, 3, pp. 717-730

    Pichler, M., Winter, E., Ress, A., Bauernhofer, T., Gerger, A., Kiesslich, T., Lax, S., Samonigg, H., & Hoefler, G., 2013, 'miR-181a is associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with colorectal cancer treated with EGFR inhibitor', Journal Of Clinical Pathology,

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    A flu forecasting website for the United States set up by infectious disease experts at Columbia's Mailman School of Public Health may help “foster greater awareness of influenza activity and risk around the country, and motivate individuals to take measures, such as vaccination, to protect themselves against the virus" according to Jeffrey Shaman, PhD, who led the site’s development. The URL is The system reports predictions every Friday during the flu season for 94 US cities.

    The latest data reported was for the week from December 29th 2013 to January 4th 2014. It reported in which cities flu was expected to arise and when it would peak and also in which cities seasonal flu is likely to have already peaked. Overall, the system predicted that the 2013-2014 flu season would peak later with fewer cases than in 2012-2013 but with considerably more severe cases than in 2011-2012 season.

    According to a press release from Colombia, the website boasts features including:
    • Interactive map of the United States the displays the relative severity of seasonal flu in cities across the country flu and incidence numbers for each.
    • Influenza incidence predictions by city for the coming weeks.
    • Map that illustrates the proportion of flu cases by region.
    • Charts that compare the timing and severity of the four most recent flu seasons.
    • Exportable data for each week of the flu season (beginning in 9/29 for the 2013-2014 season).

    The scientifically validated system adapts techniques used in weather forecasting to convert real-time, Web-based estimates of influenza infection into local forecasts of the future influenza incidence by locality. It is hoped that access to the website may have a positive public health impact by influencing the public in terms of accessing vaccination and exercising care around people sneezing and coughing. It should also have a positive impact on public health officials by helping inform decisions on vaccine stockpiling and distribution and measures such as school closures. It is to be hoped that in the future this type of system may become available internationally.

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    This is a screenshot of Credit:


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    Researchers from KU Leuven in Belgium have identified a ‘short-circuit’ mechanism in chemosensors called transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that can paradoxically lead to increased pain in response to candidate painkillers targeting these channels. The work, published online in last week’s Nature Chemical Biology focused on one member of the TRP family called TRPM3.

    Pain provides with a vital ‘warning’ system alerting us to the dangers of, for example, extreme heat or cold. A network of sensory nerves, for example in the skin and mucosa, relays pain signals from around the body to the brain. Around these nerves are ion channels such as the TRP family. The TRP family act as primary chemosensors. Upon binding of a ligand, a cation conducting pore opens in the middle of the TRP channel. This results in a tiny electrical signal which when it is transmitted to the brain is interpreted as pain. The Belgian group’s work involved study of candidate painkillers which would target the TRPM3. This channel detects heat and the hormone pregnenolone sulfate, a pain and inflammation trigger. TRPM3 can be gated by combinding drugs such as endogenous neurosteroids and exogenous chemicals such as clotrimazole.

    In an in vivo mouse model, the Belgian study found that an alternative pathway was mediated via TRPM3 when channels were closed by a number of different mechanisms including desensitization, blockade, mutagenesis and chemical modification of the central pore. This pathway therefore did not depend on an open ion channel. Instead, it involved a ‘short circuit’ whereby the stimulus found a different route; rather than using the central pore, it carved a path through the surrounding material and activated the nearby pain nerves, sending a pain signal to the brain. The overall result was to exacerbate TRPM3-dependent pain. The researchers maintain that this mechanism may explain the pain-enhancing side effects of drugs such as clotrimazole and thy hope that it will shed new light on TRP channel function and pharmacology.


    Vriens, J., Held, K., Janssens, A., Tóth, B., Kerselaers, S., Nilius, B., Vennekens, R., & Voets, T., 2014, 'Opening of an alternative ion permeation pathway in a nociceptor TRP channel', Nature Chemical Biology, viewed 14 January 2014

    Press release:

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    Studies on the white-throated sparrow have given a rare insight into how a chromosomal rearrangement resulting in genetic polymorphism directly impacts behaviour in a vertebrate. The study, led by researchers in Emory University, was published in early edition this week in the Proceedings of that National Academy of Sciences in the United States of America (PNAS). It has linked differences in parenting and aggression behaviour in two different white-throated sparrow phenotypes to the oestrogen receptor ER-alpha.

    The PNAS study examined white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) with two different, long-recognised phenotypes caused by a rearrangement in a chromosome sequence known as chromosomal polymorphism ZAL2/2m. This polymorphism results in two readily distinguishable forms of the sparrow, the tan-striped morph and the white-striped morph, respectively. The attached picture clearly shows how they can be distinguished by their plumage (copyright/credit Brent Horton, Sparrows with the rearranged ZAL2m polymorphism (white-striped) are recognised to be more aggressive and less parental than the tan-striped birds.

    In the study, parenting behaviour was assessed in the wild by monitoring frequency with which the birds returned to the nest to feed their young while aggression monitoring was based on analysis of song rate in the presence of a perceived threat to the sparrow’s territory. Such patterns of behaviour are thought to be mediated by sensitivity to sex steroids in vertebrates. An examination of the polymorphic region revealed various candidate genes, among them ESR1, the gene for oestrogen receptor ER-alpha. Levels of expression of this receptor affect sensitivity to sex hormones including testosterone. The study demonstrated that in the region of the ESR1 gene that controls its expression, known as the promoter, there were fixed differences (polymorphisms) between the tan-striped and white-striped birds. These polymorphisms affected the transcription of ESR1 in vitro. When expression of the ESR1 protein product, ER-alpha, was examined in brain regions associated with aggression, white-striped birds (the more aggressive ZAL2m polymorphism type) had three times the level of ER-alpha than the tan-striped birds. By correlating behavioural data and lab data, the researchers were able to show that expression of ER-alpha in that region and others predicted variation in territorial aggression and parenting.

    This is an unusual example of a study being able to demonstrate directly how a chromosomal rearrangement causes behavioural difference in a vertebrate. The authors are currently examining a suite of further neuroendocrine genes captured by the chromosome rearrangement to examine their impact on behaviour.

    HORTON, B.M., HUDSON, W.H., ORTLUND, E.A., SHIRK, S., THOMAS, J.W., YOUNG, E.R., ZINZOW-KRAMER, W.M. and MANEY, D.L., 2014. Estrogen receptor α polymorphism in a species with alternative behavioral phenotypes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2014 Jan; Available from:

    Press release:

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    I am basically from biotech background and interested in doing training in bioinformatics. Please tell me about the uses of microarray data analysis .Huh

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    Hello I will tell you about my first experiment idea it will be a breeding project that will have the purpose of creating better organization and weapons among bacteria and viruses to fight cells and medicine I am open to Ideas I will discuss mine with you!

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    A study led by a research group in the University of Washington has found that inherited (germline) mutations in genes known to be involved in ovarian cancer are present in 20% of women with no known family history or predisposition to ovarian cancer. The study, published yesterday in Nature Communications, also revealed the presence of germline mutations in genes not previously associated with ovarian cancer. The results of this study suggest that screening of women for ovarian cancer needs to take into account the fact that genetic susceptibility to ovarian cancer may not be obvious from a look at family history. While more than 20000 women are estimated to be afflicted with ovarian cancer, often it is not diagnosed until the cancer has spread due to a lack of definitive symptoms. As a result, there is a poor five –year survival rate for this cancer. The germline mutations identified in this study may not in themselves necessarily lead to cancer, however when linked to acquired (somatic) genetic changes that may occur during a woman’s life, these germline mutations would be sufficient to tip the balance. The authors consider the 20% figure to be conservative as on-going research is expected to reveal further mutations.

    The study used large-scale exome-wide analysis to examine both tumour DNA and the woman’s own DNA from 429 ovarian carcinoma cases and 557 controls. These ovarian cancer cases were considered to have arisen sporadically, in the absence of any known familial susceptibility. By comparing the sequences, the researchers were able to identify the somatic mutations that had been acquired in the tumour. In addition, they could compare the ovarian cancer patients’ own DNA samples to those of control subjects to determine if there were germline variants in the cancer patients related to susceptibility to ovarian cancer. This genetic detective work revealed that in 20% of these apparently sporadic ovarian cancer cases, there were germline truncation variants and large deletions in genes belonging to the Fanconi pathway. This pathway is associated with cell division and repair of damaged or mutated DNA and includes the genes BRCA1 (breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein) and BRCA2 (breast cancer type 2 susceptibility protein), which are widely known to be associated with predisposition to both ovarian and breast cancer. The study found that the ovarian cancer patients carried germline mutations in these genes which would lead to shortened (truncated) protein product, as well as mutations in another gene in this pathway, PALB2 (Partner and localizer of BRCA2). As well as these mutations which were already familiar in the field of ovarian cancer susceptibility, mutations were found in several other genes not previously known in this context, including NF1 (Neurofibromin), MAP3K4 (Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4), CDKN2B (Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B) and MLL3 (Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2C).

    In all, the findings of this important paper should encourage better integration of knowledge of both inherited and acquired mutations in causing ovarian cancer and contribute to changes in screening practices for this devastating disease. The lead author of the paper, Dr. Li Ding, said: “We’re now able to obtain a fuller picture of the way cancer develops in a particular patient. More studies are needed, but our findings could have important implications for developing better screening strategies for ovarian cancer and improving early detection.”


    Kanchi KL, Johnson KJ, Lu C, Raphael BJ, Wilson RK, Ding L et al. Integrated analysis of germline and somatic variants in ovarian cancer. Nature Communications. Jan. 22, 2014. (Available at

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