Articles on this Page
- 06/30/13--10:42: _Novartis Internatio...
- 06/30/13--20:03: _Artificial Cells Ap...
- 07/01/13--01:41: _GATE Biotech Aptitu...
- 07/01/13--10:57: _MedImmune LLC, Late...
- 07/01/13--11:15: _Betatrophin: A New ...
- 07/02/13--01:55: _Novozymes Latest Ne...
- 07/02/13--04:37: _Bioniche Life Scien...
- 07/02/13--09:58: _ROCHE HOLDING AG, L...
- 07/04/13--03:09: _Industrial Fermenta...
- 07/04/13--07:55: _Ranbaxy Laboratorie...
- 07/04/13--12:29: _IBMBB Sri Lanka: Po...
- 07/05/13--10:45: _Connection Between ...
- 07/05/13--23:56: _Join IFS, Sri Lanka...
- 07/06/13--02:04: _Sun Pharma Ltd. Lat...
- 07/07/13--01:02: _Baxter Internationa...
- 07/09/13--04:45: _MSc Degrees in Biot...
- 07/10/13--04:36: _Internship/Research...
- 07/10/13--11:13: _Wockhardt Ltd: Late...
- 07/12/13--07:40: _Company Directory (...
- 07/15/13--12:06: _Cloning multiple ge...
- 06/30/13--10:42: Novartis International AG Latest News and Vacancies
Next Generation Scientist Program
- 06/30/13--20:03: Artificial Cells Applications and their Future
- 07/01/13--01:41: GATE Biotech Aptitude Part Preparation
- 07/01/13--10:57: MedImmune LLC, Latest News & Vacancies
- 07/01/13--11:15: Betatrophin: A New Hormone for Diabetes Control Discovered!
- 07/02/13--01:55: Novozymes Latest News And Job Openings
Novozymes strengthens its mark in bioagriculture, signs an agreement acquiring TJ Technologies Inc
Novozymes builds new enzymatic solutions to improve the freshness span of packaged cakes
- Novozymes launches a more efficient automatic dishwashing liquid
- Job Opening
- 07/02/13--04:37: Bioniche Life Sciences Inc. latest news and current job openings
- Bioniche will be hosting an Audio Webcast to give information on Vaccine Manufacturing Centre Validation
- Bioniche signs debt refinancing and Urocidin™ licensing deals with Paladin Labs Inc
- Job Openings
- 07/02/13--09:58: ROCHE HOLDING AG, Latest News & Vacancies
- 07/04/13--03:09: Industrial Fermentation: Upstream and Downstream Process Overview
- 07/04/13--07:55: Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd: Recent News and Job Opportunities
Ranbaxy Q2 Results to be declared on August 07, 2013
USFDA Sheds Clarification on Ranbaxy's Manufacturing Plants
Ranbaxy launches Hybrid Business In Brazil in Collaboration with Daiichi Sankyo
- 07/04/13--12:29: IBMBB Sri Lanka: Postgraduate Programmes and Application Details
- 07/05/13--10:45: Connection Between Sound Perception and Fear Almost Discovered
- 07/05/13--23:56: Join IFS, Sri Lanka as a Research Assistant
- 07/06/13--02:04: Sun Pharma Ltd. Latest News and Vacancies
- 07/07/13--01:02: Baxter International Inc. latest updates and job openings
- Sessions for critical thinking and debate presented by Baxter’s employees at Chicago High School
The following details apply for both Programme I and Programme II
- First instalment: Rs. 100,000/= at the commencement of the first semester of the course
- Two instalments of Rs. 50,000/= at the beginning of second and third semesters
- 07/10/13--04:36: Internship/Research Opportunities for Sri Lankan Students
- 07/10/13--11:13: Wockhardt Ltd: Latest News & Job Opportunities
Wockhardt reported $1 billion sales in 2012-13!
Wockhardt Recieved "BEST ENTERPRISE" Award from Europe Business Assembly
Wockhardt Hits Lowest On UK Import alert in Last One Year
- 07/12/13--07:40: Company Directory (By Country of Origin)
- 07/15/13--12:06: Cloning multiple genes in plant vector
Novartis due to its worldwide presence has vacancies in different countries in different divisions like QA, QC, R&D, Production, etc. Kindly go through the career site to select the destination of your choice.
We will keep you updated with latest news.
An artificial cell can basically be defined as a particle that replaces or assists cellular functions, and in which biological or non-biological materials are encapsulated within a biological or synthetic polymer membrane. These “cells’” can come in macro, micro, nano and molecular dimensions and are used in various disciplines such as medicine, biotechnology, agriculture, industry, nanorobotics and much more. Depending on their structure or functions they are identified by different terminology such as nanoparticles, nanocapsules, nanosensors, liposomes, lipid vesicles, microcapsules, polymersomes etc.
The membranesorrounding an artificial cell can be either biological or synthetic. This membrane is usually composed of materials such as biodegradable or non-biodegradable simple polymers, lipids, proteins, polymer materials linked with lipids or proteins linked with lipids. Polymeric material used for membrane synthesis determines the porosity of the membrane and the degree of diffusion of the molecules through the membrane. Hydrogel polymers such as alginate or cellulose and thermoplastic polymers such as polyacrylonitrilepolyvinyl chloride are some of the commonly used materials for membrane construction.
The membrane of an artificial cell performs different tasks. Basically, it separates the contents of the cell from the outside and controls the movement of molecules between the cell and the surroundings. Being immunologically inert, these membranes protect the artificial cells from the immune system of a patient when they are used in clinical applications.
Depending on their functions, the complexity of these membranes may vary. For instance, some membranes may have proteins on their surfaces such as enzymes, haemoglobin, antigens or antibody. Some may contain transport carriers or selective channels.
Enclosed within the polymer, the artificial cells can contain a variety of bioactive materials such as cells, enzymes, haemoglobin, microorganisms, vaccines, genes, drugs, hormones, proteins, nanoparticles, magnetic materials etc. artificial cells may also contain a combination of these materials.
Few Applications of Artificial Cells
Artificial Cells for Hemoperfusion
Artificial cells are also used for hemoperfusion, i.e. removal of toxic substances from the blood of a patient. These ‘cells’ contain adsorbent materials which retain the contaminants in the blood that diffuse through the membrane. The artificial cells are a cheaper and more effective option compared to the available methods of blood detoxification. Since they restrict the movement of the encased adsorbents into the patient’s blood, they are also considered to be safe. Recent researches have been conducted with artificial cells composed of nanosponges encapsulated within natural red blood cell membranes which can be used for removal of toxins from blood.
Artificial Cells as Oxygen Carriers
Artificial cells containing only haemoglobin (Hb) or red blood cell enzymes along with Hb can be used as oxygen carriers. They can be an effective solution to the various problems associated with blood transfusion one of which is the need of blood typing and matching to avoid immunological reactions in the patient. Since these artificial cells can be sterilised they also eliminate the risk of transmission of diseases such as AIDS through blood transfusion. Furthermore, the artificial oxygen carriers, since they possess stable cellular membranes, are more durable and can be stored for prolonged durations where the natural RBCs can only be stored up to 42 days at 4 Centigrade.
Haemoglobin in purified form cannot be used as an oxygen carrier because it is highly toxic to the kidney. This toxicity arises due to the breakdown of haemoglobin molecule into two toxic dimers which damage liver tissues. In artificial cells, haemoglobin can either be enclosed within the particle or it can be cross-inked to the polymers to form insoluble conjugated haemoglobin. Since these haemoglobin molecules are immobilised, the threat of toxicity is eliminated.
More complex artificial cells, which can be considered as artificial red blood cells have been developed by incorporating Hb as well as RBC enzymes into the cellular element.
Artificial Cells as Drug Delivery Systems
Artificial cells have drawn the attention of the scientists as an alternative method of delivering drugs. These delivery systems have many benefits over the traditional methods such as oral and intravenous administration of drugs. The major advantage is their ability to release the drugs slowly once within the tissues. Modern drug delivering artificial cell systems range from micro to nanodimensions. They are known by different terms such as polymersomes, liposomes, nanoparticles, nanotubules etc.
Apart from these applications, artificial cells are used in various clinical applications such as enzyme therapy, gene therapy and cell therapy. There is also the possibility of enclosing radioactive materials within an artificial cell which could then be used to treat tumours. These cells could be also be designed to target specific tissues by crosslinking proteins that are immunologically compatible to the target tissues.
Artificial Cells in the Future
With the progress in the nanotechnology and molecular biology, novel and more advanced artificial cell types with improved polymer membranes and new contents will be developed. Scientists are also working on with the hope of creating a “living artificial cell” which will be entirely man-made but will mimic biological cells in every other way. There are also predictions that “Programmable Artificial Cell Evolution”, an integrated programme supported by the European Union will eventually succeed in incorporating the artificial cells into computer and robotics technology, thereby making self-repairing computers.
Artificial cells: biotechnology, nanomedicine, regenerative medicine, blood substitutes, bioencapsulation, cell/stem cell therapy by Chang, Thomas Ming Swi (2007)
Recently, I got a query from one of the members of Biotechnologyforums at my email, about tips for preparation of Aptitude part of GATE BT exam. Thought to share the response with all of you. Hope the tips might help you all.
Well, one should never ignore the aptitude part, as it carries a good 15 marks weightage out of total 100. And, most of the questions are always quite straightforward for those who have had a glance of basic aptitude concepts in following 5 domains:
1. Quantitative Aptitude
2. Data Interpretation
3. Logical Reasoning
4. Verbal ability
5. Verbal Reasoning
A. Quantitative Aptitude
Link 1 Link 2
A thorough preparation at Link 1 (Indiabix) should suffice.
B. Data Interpretation
Link 1 Link 2
These questions are often very easy and seldom asked in GATE BT.
C. Logical Reasoning
Link 1 Link 2 (Nice Video Lectures)
Be thorough with Logical Reasoning, it's very common in GATE BT aptitude.
D. Verbal ability
Link 1 Link 2 (Good Files to Download)
E. Verbal Reasoning
Also commonly asked in GATE BT. Give special focus to Blood Relation Test, Seating Arrangement, Venn Diagrams, Verification of Truth, Direction Sense Test , Logical Sequence of Words and Series Completion.
Hope these tips help you in some way. All the Best for GATE BT 2014!
For other tips on GATE BT, Click here
Thanks for Reading!
MedImmune LLC, is a US based biotechnology enterprise, acquired by AstraZeneca in 2007. It has its headquarters in Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was established by Wayne T. Hockmeyer as Molecular vaccines Inc. in 1988 and was changed to MedImmune in 1990. Company develops and manufactures immunological research based products, its most famous drugs are Synagis and FluMist.
In this forum we will discuss about its latest technologies, developments, recognitions and vacancies.
career website for extensive job offers in the field of biochemistry, molecular biology, bioprocess engineering and more.
Lets wait for another big news by MedImmune.
Diabetes is amongst those notorious diseases facing mankind, that has no permanent cure, and rather life threatening complications (obesity, impaired/lost vision, inflammations, renal failure, cardiac arrests etc!). Till date, the controls (no cure) are limited to insulin administrations coupled with dietary modulations. The worst part about the current strategy of diabetes control is the need to inject insulin into the body regularly every day! Untill recently when oral insulin was developed, most of the patients were tired of punching holes in their skin to keep their sugar levels low/under control! But, oral administration isn't a relief either, due to the strict regimes of insulin intake needed post meals. The dependency on regular intake of insulin hasn't subsided despite years of research, and the need for some permanent or at-least a mode of treatment that could give long-term effects has always been felt, especially in current scenario of ever increasing number of diabetes patients!
As per the studies conducted on mice, the hormone is found to be secreted by Liver, White Adipose Tissue (WAT) and Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT). Following is a self descriptive image of the process, as referred from the original research paper:
How it Happened?
(ii) Induction of insulin resistance caused the β Cells to proliferate.
(iii) Under the conditions of proliferating β Cells, Dr. Douglas and team looked for the genes whose expression was increased.
(iv) This lead to the discovery of genes causing the secretion of special hormone, that actually caused the proliferation of β Cells, and hence named Betatrophin.
Scope of Discovery:
As per the estimates of Dr. Douglas, a single injection of Betatrophin should be sufficient to replace the months-years of need of insulin injections. And, since the body will be producing it's own insulin under the action of Betatrophin, there will be much less chances/cases of complications! And considering the high activity of the hormone, it may be hoped that even Type-1 diabetes (caused by autoimmune clearing of insulin-secreting beta cells) could be tackled with this hormone!
Probable Road Map For Future
As the trials were conducted in the young 8 weeks old mice, it is yet to be seen the effect of the hormone on old mice, especially the one in advanced stages of diabetes. Whether the hormone induces it's action in diabetic and old mice/humans too, is the but obvious immediate task that the scientific community is eagerly looking forward to. At the end of the day, it's the diabetic patients who are at the receiving end ultimately, so if the hormone cannot exhibit satisfactory and controlled results in the diseased targets, it cannot really be declared a blockbuster future drug for diabetes.
Apart from that, as per Dr. Douglas, in order to initiate the first human trials, atleast 2 years will be required to produce Betatrophin in sufficient amounts for the task. So, it's not quite immediately, that the hormone will come to the service of the community at large. Apart from that, lot needs to be done to ascertain the actual mechanism (signal pathway) of action of the hormone, and more importantly, the receptors where it binds and exerts the effects. Such, key issues once addressed, will really make this discovery a new age technology to treat diabetes with possible permanent effects!
Here's a video on Novozymes OptiCake®:
b. Quality Control
c. Research & Development
We will keep updating the thread with new information!
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Bioniche Life Sciences Inc., founded in 1979, is a Canada, Ontario based Biopharmaceutical Company. With its corporate headquarter in Ontario (Canada), it has its marketing facilities available in Montreal, Quebec; Athens, Georgia; Pullman, Washington; and Sydney, Australia. It mainly deals discovery, development and manufacturing of products for human and animal health.
F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. is Swiss multinational company established in 1896 by Fritz Hoffmann-La Roche, which specializes in two mainstream profiles: pharmaceuticals and healthcare diagnostics.
The company is headquartered in Basel and the company has many hot centers around the world - including:
USA & CANADA: Nutley, NJ; Pleasanton, CA; Branchburg, NJ; Indianapolis, Indiana; Florence, South Carolina; and Ponce, Puerto Rico; Mississauga and Laval in Canada.
SOUTH AMERICA: São Paulo, Brazil;
EUROPE: Welwyn Garden City and Burgess Hill in the UK; Clarecastle in Ireland; Mannheim and Penzberg in Germany; Segrate, Milan in Italy;
ASIA Shanghai in China; Mumbai & Hyderabad in India; Karachi, Islamabad and Lahore in Pakistan.
Roche also holds the American biotechnology company Genentech, which is a wholly owned affiliate, the Japanese biotechnology company Chugai Pharmaceuticals and the Tucson, Arizona based Ventana
The company has a legacy of invention, its has credits for presenting The World of medicine, first anti-depressant Iproniazid and one of the most powerful statin Xenical
In this forum we will discuss about the latest updates of the company and the vacancies.
With its huge steps for mergers and acquisitions growth of Roche looks unstoppable. This July (07-02-2013) company has acquired a Boston based company Constitution Medical Inc. This will make the hematology section of Roche quite robust. A total of USD 2.0 billion of global market is estimated for hematology testing post this well thought move.
Perjeta, in combination with Herceptin and chemotherapy, was approved by the FDA in 2012 for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Now it is proposed to be used as a neoadjuvant therapy where it will be used before surgery of HER-2 positive breast cancer. But the treatment is restricted to patients where cancer has not spread beyond the breasts or the lymph nodes. It was studied that treatment with Perjeta, Herceptin and docetaxel chemotherapy significantly improved the rate of pCR by 58 percent compared to Herceptin and docetaxel alone (45.8 percent vs. 29.0 percent, p=0.014).
FDA has granted a priority review for of the application and the results can be expected by October 31, 2013.
Are you a biotech/pharma graduate? And want to have a future in management division of a pharma company? Then definitely Be Roche program is for you. It specializes the student in eleven divisions-
- Human Resources
- Finance and Administration
- Medical Marketing
- Corporate Communications
- Business Initiatives
- Health Economics
- Regulatory Affairs
- Medical Services
If you have talent to show up in multidimensional aspect this is the pathlight to a successful career.
Have a look into reviews of past graduates, click here.
Vacancies are listed as per countries, all enthusiasts should give a look at the career site for a bright shining future with one of the most invention driven company.
Do follow the post for regular updates!
Depending on the circumstance, the term fermentation can have three meanings. In a physiological sense, fermentation refers to a process that produces energy by breaking down of energy-rich compounds under anaerobic conditions. This is the basis of food fermentation, which is commonly used in the food industry in order to produce diverse food products and also as a food preservation method. In a biotechnological context though, this term is used in a much broader sense. There, fermentation means a process in which microorganisms that are cultured on a large-scale under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, convert a substrate into a product which is useful to man.
This article attempts to provide an overview of the industrial fermentation process, mainly focusing on various types of fermentations, the basic steps in a typical fermentation process and the major industrial applications of fermentation.
Basic Steps of Industrial Fermentation
Any industrial fermentation operation can be broken down into three main stages, viz, upstream processing, the fermentation process and downstream processing.
Upstream processing includes formulation of the fermentation medium, sterilisation of air, fermentation medium and the fermenter, inoculum preparation and inoculation of the medium.
The fermentation medium should contain an energy source, a carbon source, a nitrogen source and micronutrients required for the growth of the microorganism along with water and oxygen, if necessary.
A medium which is used for a large scale fermentation, in order to ensure the sustainability of the operation, should have the following characteristics;
1. It should be cheap and easily available
2. It should maximise the growth of the microorganism, productivity and the rate of formation of the desired product
3. It should minimise the formation of undesired products
Usually, waste products from other industrial processes, such as molasses, lignocellulosic wastes, cheese whey and corn steep liquor, after modifying with the incorporation of additional nutrients, are used as the substrate for many industrial fermentations.
Sterilisation is essential for preventing the contamination with any undesired microorganisms. Air is sterilised by membrane filtration while the medium is usually heat sterilised. Any nutrient component which is heat labile is filter-sterilised and later added to the sterilised medium. The fermenter may be sterilised together with the medium or separately.
Inoculum build up is the preparation of the seed culture in amounts sufficient to be used in the large fermenter vessel. This involves growing the microorganisms obtained from the pure stock culture in several consecutive fermenters. This process cuts down the time required for the growth of microorganisms in the fermenter, thereby increasing the rate of productivity. Then the seed culture obtained through this process is used to inoculate the fermentation medium.
Inoculum preparation procedure
The fermentation process involves the propagation of the microorganism and production of the desired product. The fermentation process can be categorised depending on various parameters.
It can be either aerobic fermentation, carried out in the presence of oxygen or anaerobic fermentation, carried out in the absence of oxygen. Many industrial fermentation are carried out under aerobic conditions where a few processes such as ethanol production by yeast require strictly anaerobic environments.
The fermentation process can also be divided into three basic systems, namely batch, continuous or fed-batch, depending on the feeding strategy of the culture and the medium into the fermenter. Each of these processes has their own advantages and disadvantages. In a batch operation, the medium and the culture are initially fed into the vessel and it is then closed. After that, no components are added apart from oxygen (in an aerobic process) and acid or alkali for the pH adjustment. The fermentation is allowed to run for a predetermined period of time and the product is harvested at the end. In a continuous process, fresh medium is continuously added and the products, along with the culture is removed at the same rate, thus maintaining constant concentrations of nutrients and cells are maintained throughout the process. A fed-batch system is a combination of these two systems where additional nutrients are added to the fermenter as the fermentation is in progress. This extends the time of operation but the products are harvested at the end of the production cycle as in a batch fermenter.
The process can also be categorised as solid state fermentation (SSF) or submerged fermentation (SmF), depending on the amount of free water in the medium. In a solid state fermentation, the medium contains no free flowing water. The organisms are grown in a solid substrate which is moistened. This is used in certain industrial process such as ‘koji’ fermentation from soybeans, production of amylase and protease by Aspergillus oryzae on roasted soybeans and wheat, bioremediation, detoxification of agro-industrial wastes, etc. Submerged fermentation is in which microorganisms grow submerged in a liquid medium where free water is abundant. This is the method of choice for many industrial operations over SSF although SSF is also rapidly gaining interest in the present.
A comparison of SSF and SmF
Downstream Processing includes the recovery of the products in a pure state and the effluent treatment. Product recovery is carried out through a series of operations including cell separation by settling, centrifugation or filtration; product recovery by disruption of cells (if the product is produced intracellularly); extraction and purification of the product. Finally, the effluents are treated by chemical, physical or biological methods.
Commercially important products of fermentation can be described in five major groups as follows.
1. Biomass (Baker’s yeast, SCP, Starter cultures, animal feed, etc.)
2. Primary metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, polysaccharides, ethanol, etc.) and secondary metabolites (antibiotics, etc.)
3. Bioconvertion or biotransformation products (steroid biotransformation, L-sorbitol etc.)
4. Enzymes (amylase, lipase, cellulase, etc.)
5. Recombinant products (some vaccines, hormones such as isulin and growth hormones etc.)
1. Food Biotechnology (2nd edition) edited by Kalidas Shetty, Gopinadhan Paliyath, Anthony Pometto and Robert E. Levin
2. Introduction to Biochemical Engineering By Dubasi Govardhana Rao
Ranbaxy is a world renowned Pharmaceutical company (serving over 150 Nations), with it's global headquarters in Gurgaon, Haryana (India). With it's diverse portfolio of Generics, Branded Generics, Value-added and Over-the-Counter (OTC) products, Anti-retrovirals (ARVs), Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs), Vaccines etc, Ranbaxy has a strong hold in the pharmaceutical markets of both the developed and developing nations. Since it's inception in 1961, Ranbaxy has given due consideration to Research and Innovation, enabling it to consistently add depth to it's product pipeline.
Here's a brief overview of the recent updates and job positions at Ranbaxy.
Click here for the stock report
Click here for the details
Click here for details
Following are the recent Job Openings at Ranbaxy, India:
(To apply, Click here)
We will keep updating the post.
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The Institute of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IBMBB) is a postgraduate training institute affiliated with the University of Colombo in Sri Lanka.
IBMBB is the National Node for European Molecular Biology Network (EMBnet) and is designated as a Resource Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, by the International Programme in Chemical Sciences, University of Uppsala , Sweden.
The Postgraduate Programmes Offered by the Institute
The Institute offers MSc, MPhil and PhD programmes as well as short courses in disciplines related to Molecular Life Sciences.
Short Courses in Molecular Biology
Certificate Course in Molecular Biological Techniques
Course content: the programme includes theory and practicals with hands on experience in DNA based techniques such as DNA extraction and quantification, PCR, RT-PCR, DNA probes, gel electrophoresis, restriction fragment length polymorphism and an exposure to DNA sequencing. Application of the techniques in diagnosis of pathogenic diseases, mutation detection etc will be discussed.
This course is designed for scientists, clinicians, academics, technical officers and students awaiting higher studies in biological sciences.
Course Duration: From 12th August 2013 to 16th August 2013
For more details, click here (http://www.ibmbb.lk/node/250)
Apply now! Application deadline will be 15th July 2013
To apply online, click here
Eligibility (For all three MSc Courses): Graduates in Biological / Medical / Dental / Veterinary / Agricultural Sciences are eligible to apply.
Course Fee (For all three MSc Courses): Contact the Senior Assistant Registrar of the Institute
1. MSc in Molecular Life Sciences is a full time three semester programme in which the duration of a semester is 20 weeks. The course provides an advanced training in molecular life sciences. This also includes a research project which should be completed within one semester.
This programme will admit Commonwealth Scholars through the Ministry of Higher Education, Sri Lanka from the next intake. Interested overseas applicants should make their application through the Ministry of Higher Education, Sri Lanka.
You can view the course contents here
2. MSc in Cellular and Molecular Immunology is a full time course designed to be completed within three semesters of 20 weeks duration each. This course provides a strong foundation in molecular and cellular immunology and includes a research component which is designed to offer advanced training in research methodologies.
You can view the course contents here
3. MSc in Bioinformatics is a full time, two year programme providing advance training and a strong foundation in Bioinformatics. This programme is jointly offered by the Institute of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IBMBB), University of Colombo and the University of Colombo School of Computing (UCSC).
You can view the course contents here
MPhil and PhD Programmes
The institute also offers several MPhil and PhD programmes in the areas related to molecular biology, biochemistry and biotechnology. Further details about these programmes could be obtained by contacting the institute on weekdays between 3.00 am to 11.00 am GMT.
Telephone : +94 11 2552528
Fax : +94-11- 2553683
E-mail : email@example.com
We will keep updating the post as new details are available. Thank You.
Everyone knows that connection between our emotions and music is very strong. Anyone who listens his favorite music knows how powerful music is and how it affects our emotions. However, music and sound can affect people in both ways- positive and negative. Our emotions control this process because they are responsible how we hear and how we process sound.
Hearing similar sounds to those we like can evoke good feelings because many certain types of sounds are associated with very strong emotions in our brains. In similar way, sounds can evoke negative feelings as well.
Some tests on combat veterans suffering from post- traumatic stress disorder were examined and this phenomenon with hearing association was present. These patients could evoke terrible memories from the battlefield just with a simple and common sounds like sounds of thunder, wind and rain. However, scientists were blind for a long time, because they couldn’t find out which mechanisms were responsible for these associations. Nowadays, scientists from the University of Pennsylvania have discovered how fear can increase or maybe decrease the ability of discrimination between wide range of sounds. This discovery has provided new viewpoint in victims suffering post- traumatic stress disorder.
Benefits of emotions in human
Many scientists from Penn University thins that our emotions are very close linked to our perception. These emotions and our emotional response can really help us deal with newly occurred problems. Just to explain, our emotion for example, fear, can help us escape some potentially dangerous situations. This emotion also gives us ability to react very quickly.
However, there are also some situations where things can definitely go wrong in the way the fear response develops. These situations can occur in some pathological conditions like anxiety and also in PTSD. In these situations the emotional response to these events is generalized to the point where the fear response starts getting developed to a very broad range of stimuli.
Earlier experiments on mice
A group of scientists have used emotional conditioning in laboratory mice to find out how hearing acuity can change following unpleasant event. This is commonly known as classic emotional learning. ( Hearing acuity is the clarity of clearness of hearing. It is a measure how good person hears and is the person able to distinguish two tones of different frequencies. This hearing acuity is commonly used to determine persons need for hearing aid ). In these experiments on mice, which rely on classical (Pavlovian) conditioning, animals learn to separate potentially dangerous and safe sounds. This conditioning is called emotional discrimination learning. This type of conditioning is not that good method of examination. It has no brilliant results and it has showed a relatively poor learning. However, a group of scientists have designed a series of learning tasks with a mission to create progressively greater emotional discrimination in the laboratory animals- mice, with variations in the difficulty of the task. What really was interesting for those scientists was how different levels of emotional discrimination can possibly affect hearing acuity. In other words, they wanted to find out how emotional responses affect perception and discrimination between sounds. The specificity of this study is that it created the connection between perception of the world and emotions, and this fact was unknown until now.
As expected, scientists have discovered that fine emotional learning tasks have shown greater learning specificity and results than experiments in which the tones were farther apart in frequency. The animals examined with various sounds that were far apart generalized the fear that they developed to the danger tone. This danger tone was over a whole range of frequencies. On the other hand the animals tested with the two sounds that were very similar exhibited specialization of their emotional response. Due to fine conditioning task, they found out that it's a very short range of pitches that are eventually dangerous.
Results of the study
When scientists measured pitch discrimination abilities in the animals, they noticed that mice with more specific responses showed way more finer auditory acuity than the mice who were tested with a wider range of frequencies. In final results, a connection between how much their emotional response generalized and how well they could tell different tones apart was present. In first case, animals that specialized their emotional response had sharper pitch discrimination. In other words, these animals were able to discriminate two tones which could not be separated previously. Another very interesting finding of this study are effects of the emotional learning on hearing perception which were under control of the auditory cortex. From the previous researches auditory cortex has been known as part of the brain responsible for auditory plasticity. However, an interesting discovery was also registered. Auditory cortex did not play role in emotional learning.
Link between auditory cortex and amygdala remains unknown
When we know that auditory cortex is involved, and when we know that emotional learning is controlled by sub- cortical auditory areas and amygdala, one question still remains unanswered: how do the amygdala and cortex interact together? This question has no answer, but there is a hypothesis that the cortex and amygdala are modifiers of the subcortical auditory processing areas. The sensory cortex has role for the changes in discrimination of the frequencies. However, this brain part is not required for developing generalized or specialized emotional responses.
If scientists find the way for solving that problem, it could promise new insight into the causes and possible treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, and the question of why some people develop it while others subjected to the similar events do not. Nowadays, researchers are sure that there is a strong link between mechanisms that control emotional learning and the brain mechanisms responsible for posttraumatic stress disorder development. One of the main foci in the future will be defining and studying that connection.
Institute of Fundamental Sciences, popular as IFS among research personnel, is a renowned research institute in Sri Lanka. It conducts research on many areas including microbial biotechnology and molecular biology & genetics.
There are two major projects currently carried out in the microbial unit.
1. Biofilm based Biofuel Production
Click here for more details on the project.
2. Biofilm-based Biofertilisers
Click here for more details on the project.
Researches are being conducted under two major disciplines at the moment.
1. Plant Biology
Find more details here
2. Cell Biology
Find more details here
IFS offers an ideal opportunity to people who are interested in research to carry out research under the guidance of proficient scientists- local and foreign- in well-equipped laboratories with state-of-the-art instruments. The environment of the institute is welcoming and friendly.
Research assistants (Contract Basis)
The vacancies will be advertised on the institute website and national media. You can check out the vacancies at IFS here (Unfortunately, there are no vacancies at the moment)
Eligibility: A candidate should have a Bachelor’s degree (often a four year degree is required) or a Master’s degree in the fields related to the position.
Selection criteria: the candidates will have to face a placement exam (subject related) as well as an interview.
How to apply: anyone who wishes to apply for a research assistant position (Contract basis) should prepare and forward their applications according to the criteria mentioned in the advertisement.
Salary Scale: Will be specified in the advertisement.
Research Assistant (Volunteer)
If you are interested in participating in short-term research projects at IFS, you can join the institute as a volunteer research assistant. A volunteer will not get paid but this is a great opportunity for budding scientists to hone their research skills. There is also the chance of getting recruited as a research assistant (contract basis) if any vacancy pops up.
Eligibility: Undergraduate students, graduate students, postgraduate students and anyone (even school leavers) who is interested in science can join the institute as a volunteer research assistant. Research projects will be assigned to the volunteers based on their level of capability.
How to apply: persons who wish to work at the institute as a volunteer should forward an application to the Director/IFS mentioning their research interest along with their CV.
Contact details: firstname.lastname@example.org
In order to find out about the ongoing research projects, they should contact the respective project leader directly.
If you are interested in the project “Biofuel production” please contact Dr. (Mrs)Renuka Ratnayake.
Contact Details: email@example.com
If you are interested in the project “Biofertiliser” please contact Prof. Gamini Seneviratne.
Contact Details: firstname.lastname@example.org
Click here to for information on joining the research at the IFS.
Sun Pharmaceuticals Industries Limited is a global pharmaceutical company headquartered in Mumbai, India. Company has a profile of manufacturing API and formulations, and sells it over more than 40 countries. And with more than twenty destinations for its manufacturing unit. Every year Sun pharma grows a little bigger and has been listed in Forbes for Asia's fab 50 and World's top 100. Company is renowned for its high quality research facility, low impurity APIs, lesser cost products and worldwide reliability. With one of the biggest fermentation and chemical synthesis facility in India, it employees over 15k employees worldwide.
Company was started in 1983 in Kolkata by Mr. Dilip Shanghvi with a manufacturing facility specialized in psychiatric drugs, within four years company expanded its specialty for Cardiology and Gastroenterology. Today company stands tall and proud with its expertise in cardiology, psychiatry, neurology, gastroenterology and diabetology. It also supplies APIs such as warfarin, carbamazepine, etodolac, and clorazepate, as well as anticancers, steroids, peptides, sex hormones, etc.
In this thread we will discuss about latest news and career updates of Sun Pharma.
The stock of Sun Pharmaceuticals hit a record high this year dominating the market capitalization over that of Dr Reddy’s Laboratories, Cipla and Lupin put together. Major revenue, profit growth and benefits are estimated from overseas acquisitions, currency depreciation and gigantic sales of its cancer drug Lipodox.
Along with this market capture company has also received the tentative approval for two significant abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs)/generics for sale in the market and its unit, URL Pharma, recently hiked the selling price of a major selling drug in market.This, along with its recent acquisitions & mergers and extremely strong product pipeline, is likely to help Sun Pharma replicate its overall robust performance in financial year 2013.
The premium drug-maker policy and a robust business tactics takes all to receive Businees Leader in Pharmaceuticals. NDTV profit awards business awards with full market and financial survey, which truly reflects the winner. With other major awards in hand like CNBC most outstanding company of 2012, Forbes listed it in top 100 most innovative companies, Sun Pharma was awarded PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY OF THE YEAR in 2011 by Frost & Sullivan India Healthcare Excellence Awards, Mr. Dilip S. Shanghvi was awarded WORLD ENTREPRENEUR OF THE YEAR by ERNST AND YOUNG 2010. And many more awards are in its accolades trunk and many more are on the way for 2013.
Click on the below jobs for more information on the post. Apply for the jobs by sending your resume to email@example.com, and do mention the code as per the job.
1. Business Development: Officer/Executive Business Development Mumbai, code SP043
2. Training Executive: Dadra, code SP030
3. Process Engineering: Manager/Senior Manager, Panoli (Gujarat), code SP029
4. Technology Transfer: Executive/Assistant Manager, Panoli (Gujarat), code SP028
We'll keep you updated with world's major companies updates and vacancies.
Baxter International Inc. is one of the leading names in the world of biotechnology. Baxter is the chief manufacturer of vaccines, products for regenerative medicines, recombinant and plasma-based proteins to treat hemophilia and other bleeding disorders. It’s US based organization, with its presence all over the world. With over 48,500 employees aiming at providing advanced patient worldwide, it is well spread in North America, Europe, Middle East and Africa, Latin America/Canada and Asia Pacific. The areas this company focuses on are:
-Acute and Intensive Care Pharmaceuticals
-Fluid Management Systems
-Home Care Therapies
-Infusion Systems/IV Tubing
-Renal/Dialysis Drugs and Devices
More on ADVATE
Information on MSc at University of Ruhuna and Peradeniya in Sri Lanka. Course contents, How to apply, Fees and Duration of the programs.
Postgraduate Institute of Science (PGIS)
PGIS, a postgraduate institute affiliated with the University of Peradeniya, offers an M.Sc. in Experimental Biotechnology. This programme is offered to a maximum number of 25 students each year.
The Structure of the Programme: This is a full-time programme consisting of course work and a research project.
Duration: The course work component is conducted over a period of two semesters of 15 weeks each and the research project is carried out over a period of 3 - 6 months.
Eligibility: Graduates in medical/dental/agricultural/veterinary/biological/engineering and physical sciences, or with equivalent qualification are eligible to follow the programme.
Course Fees (As at July 2013) : A programme fee of LKR 220 000.00 and other payments including registration fee, medical fee, library subscription, examination fee and deposits (science and library).
You can fiind the details of other fees in the PGIS Students’ handbook which you can download Here.
(The fee structure for foreign candidates can also be found in the students' handbook)
Programme fees shall be paid in two instalments (50% at the registration and the balance 50% within six months from registration)
Download the Course Contents Here
How to Apply: Click Here for more details on the application procedure
Selection Criteria: selection is based on the academic merits and the performance at an aptitude test as well as an interview. There will be no subject-based test.
University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka
University of Ruhuna offers two MSc Programmes in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology.
Eligibility: Graduates in medical/dental/agricultural/veterinary/biological sciences or those who have any other equivalent qualificationeligible to follow the programme.
Course Fees (As at July 2013): A programme fee of LKR 200,000.00 plus other applicable fees.
The programme fee is payable in three instalments as follows.
Course contents: Click Here to view the course contents
How to Apply: Click Here for more details on the application procedure
Selection Criteria: selection is based on the academic merits and the performance at an interview.
Programme I : M.Sc. in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (by coursework only)
The Structure of the Programme: This is a part time programme that consists of theory and practical courses.
Duration: three semesters of 15 weeks each.
Programme II M.Sc. in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (by coursework and research)
The Structure of the Programme: This is a part time programme of course work and a research project.
Duration: The course work component is conducted over a period of three semesters of 15 weeks each and the research project is carried in the fourth semester.
The cost of the research project shall be borne by the candidate or through a research grant.
Course content: Click Here
Many local degree programmes related to biotechnology, both BSc and MSc, require the students to carry out a short-term research project or an internship for the fulfilment of the degree. Some of the major research institutes as well as companies are willing to give these students a chance to join them as temporary research assistants or interns. Here are the details of some of the Sri Lankan institutes/companies that offer internships/ research opportunities in areas related to biotechnology.
Industrial Technology Institute(ITI)
The biotechnology unit (BTU) at ITI conducts research in areas related to Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. Their current research include studies related to crop improvement, value addition through genetic engineering, production of recombinant enzymes and DNA based disease diagnostics among many more. They also offer various technical services related to Molecular Biology and Biotechnology.
If you are interested in carrying out your research project/internship here, please submit your application to the Director, ITI.
Postal Address: Industrial Technology Institute,363, Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7
Telephone(General) : +94-11-2379800
Fax (General): +94-11-2379850
Email (General): firstname.lastname@example.org
Head (Biotechnology Unit): Dr. (Mrs.) S.G. Senaratne Email : email@example.com
Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka (RRISL)
Location: Agalawatte (Kalutara District)
RRI has three departments currently carrying out research related to genetics, molecular biology and biotechnology.
Genetics and Plant Breeding Department
Plant Science Department
Plant Pathology & Microbiology Department
If you are interested in carrying out your research project/internship here, please submit your application to the Director, RRI.
Postal Address: Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Dartonfield, Agalawatta.
Telephone (General): +94- 34 - 2247426
Fax (General): +94- 34 – 2247427
Telephone (director): +94-11 - 2635142
Email (director): firstname.lastname@example.org
Coconut Research Institute (CRI)
Location: Lunuwila (Puttlam District)
CRI has two divisions currently carrying out research related to genetics, tissue culture, molecular biology and biotechnology.
Tissue Culture Division
Genetics & Plant Breeding Division
If you are interested in carrying out your research project/internship here, please submit your application to the Director, CRI.
Postal Address: Coconut Research Institute, Lunuwila
Telephone (director):+94 31 2255890
Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka (TRI)
Location: Thalawakelle (Nuwara Eliya District)
Plant Breeding Division at TRI carries out research related to genetics, tissue culture, and molecular biology.
If you are interested in carrying out your research project/internship here, please submit your application to the Director, TRI.
Postal Address: Tea Research Institute of Sri Lanka, Talawakelle
Telephone (General): +94 52-2258201 :
Fax (General): +94 52-22582229:
Email (General): email@example.com
Sugarcane Research Institute
Location: Uda Walawe (Ratnapura District)
SRI has three divisions currently carrying out research related to genetics, molecular biology and biotechnology.
Division of Crop Protection
Division of Crop Improvement
Division of Processing Technology
If you are interested in carrying out your research project/internship here, please submit your application to the Director, SRI.
Postal Address: Sugarcane Research Institute, Uda Walawe
Telephone (General): +94-47- 2233281, +94-47- 2233285
Fax (General): +94-47- 2233233
Email (General): firstname.lastname@example.org
Telephone (Director / CEO): +94-47- 2233282
Email (Director / CEO): email@example.com
Genetech Sri Lanka
Genetech Sri Lanka is a leading biotechnology company that specialises in the areas including molecular disease diagnostics, DNA typing for paternity testing and forensic casework, research in the molecular life sciences, Customized biotechnology solutions, Molecular biology products etc. It carries out research and various diagnostic services related to biotechnology.
Contact Genetech if you are interested in joining Genetech as an intern/ temporary research assistant.
Postal Address: 54, Kitulwatte Road, Colombo
Telephone :+94-11-2696992, +94-11-5839553, +94-11-5840814 Fax: +94-11-2686137
Sri Lanka Institute of Nanotechnology (SLINTEC Pvt Ltd.)
SLINTEC is involved in Nanotechnology research & development focusing on five primary research areas; Agriculture, Apparel, Water purification, Healthcare and Mineral resources.
Contact SLINTEC if you are interested in joining them as an intern/ temporary research assistant.
Postal Address: Lot 14, Zone 1, Biyagama EPZ, Walgama, Malwana
Telephone (Research and Development/ Business Development team): +94 11 4650528
Email (Research and Development/ Business Development team): R&Dprojects@slintec.lk
Institute of Fundamental Studies (IFS)
IFS takes up research students as volunteer research assistants for on-going short-term projects. You can find more details on this through my previous article on IFS
India's leading research based global healthcare and biotechnology organisation: Wockhardt is a true Indian multinational company with 3 research centers and 12 manufacturing plants. With its headquarters located in Mumbai, Wockhardt also operates in USA, UK, France and Ireland.
Here are the latest updates of Wockhardt:
365% Growth in Profit After Tax at Rs.1594 crores
52% Growth in Operating Profit at Rs.2091 crores
29% Growth in Revenues at Rs.5610 crores in 2012-13.
For more details click here
For more details click here
For more details click here
Following are the recent job openings:
To Apply click here
This thread will be updated as and when new information is available.
To add updates about these biotech companies please add posts/replies to these existing threads only. Do not create multiple threads for the same company. If a company does not exist in the list below you can start a "New Thread" and we will usually include it here within 48 hours.
I need your help with following information and it would be great if you could help with this as soon as possible. I am basically trying to clone two genes in a plant-based vector and express it in either tobacco/ Arabidopsis. Old method of doing this was cloning two separate genes in two different plant vectors and go for sequential transformation. Its important to ensure that two vectors are compatible for the experiment, as in they should have different promoters and selection markers. In recent times TA cloning and gateway cloning vectors have been designed by various labs, so cloning multiple genes in single plant based vector is possible but these are not commercially available so it becomes essential to contact various labs.
If have any information on the same then please share and I would also like information on how to obtain these vectors. I would ideally like to have a single vector in which multiple genes can be cloned and expressed in plants. If not then I would like to have some more information on what criteria I should use in selecting two different vectors and choose which plant for transgenic expression.
I hope I have explained myself well. If you have any questions please ask me.